Open Access Original Research Article

Cosmeceutical Benefit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed Extract

Sirikhwan Manee, Jasadee Kaewsrichan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37587

Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. or okra is a vegetable of Malvaceae family.

Aim: Okra seeds were dried at 60°C, ground, and extracted by using absolute ethanol. The acquired extract was investigated for chemical constituents, cytotoxicity, anti-tyrosinase activity, and anti-oxidant property.

Results: Total phenolic content was equal to 4.6 mg gallic acid/g dry weight, as constituted by tannins, flavonoids, and polyphenols. Saponins and terpenoids were also existent. Based on molecular ion (M+) peaks of GC-MS, long chain fatty acids and their esters (~59%), as well as sterols and their derivatives (~40%) were identified as major components. Glutathione was of 2.5 mg/g dry weight. The anti-tyrosinase activity was equivalent to 15 mg ascorbic acid/g dry weight. The extract was nontoxic to cells of normal fibroblast L929, and exhibited the DPPH radical scavenging activity as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant power, which respectively equivalent to 350 µmol trolox and 170 µmol Fe2+ per g dry weight. Lotions (o/w) containing 1-7% w/w extract were physically and chemically stable over a 6-heating/cooling cycles-period of the stability test. Transdermal penetration of the lotion excipients and active compounds of the extract was not detected according to the Franz-type skin permeation study.

Conclusion: Cosmeceuticals containing Abelmoschus esculentus L. seed extract might be useful for whitening effect and to delay skin aging.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacist Perceived Barriers to Patient Counseling; A Study in Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia

Fatima Zuhair Al Laif, Rizwan Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Niyaz Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37705

Background: Pharmaceutical care model (PCM) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. Patient counseling by a pharmacist is a fundamental step in health care practice, as it allows the patients to have an adequate knowledge about their drug therapy which leads to more adherence and less adverse effect hence better outcome for PCM. However, there are many barriers that may hinder this step.

The Aim of the Study: This study highlights the barriers to patient counseling in hospital and retail pharmacy at Eastern region of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross sectional method, with a developed survey questionnaire using a cluster sampling technique among pharmacists working in retail and hospital pharmacies in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia, was used in the study. The responses gathered were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social sciences software (SPSS v 22) through descriptive and cross tabulation statistical analysis methods (P<0.05).  

Results: A response rate of 88.4% was observed. Three-fourths of the population was Saudi pharmacist (76.6%) with almost equal number of male and female pharmacists. An overwhelming majority of the pharmacists (71.8%) were working in hospital pharmacy with a major qualification of B. Pharm and experience of >5 years. The pharmacists in retail pharmacies counseled mostly acute ill patients for over the counter medications whereas hospital pharmacists mostly counseled chronic ill patients for prescription only medications. However, the age group mostly counseled was the adults (18 to 45 years) in both cases. Regarding frequency of counseling, retail pharmacist counseled the patients most of the times (90%) whereas hospital pharmacists counseled with a frequency of sometimes (50%). The most common barriers observed during patient counseling were; lack of education and privacy along with the impatient behavior of patients as reported by retail pharmacists and time constraints of pharmacists along with gender difference as reported by hospital pharmacists.          

Conclusion: Despite advances in the health fields along with the more expanded clinical role of pharmacists, some serious barriers still exists on behalf of pharmacists as well as organizational structure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of R. hastatus and R. himalyica (Polygonaceae) from Galiyat Pakistan

Sophia Awais, Irshad Ahmad, Syed Saeed Ul Hassan, Hammad Yousaf, Juwairiya Butt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37143

The medicinal plants have been known for their wide variety of applications for centuries. R. hastatus and R. himalyica are such medicinal plants which have been used in Ayurveda for their excellent antioxidative and scavenging properties. The present study is designed to explore the importance of phytochemical constituents and their biochemical activities due to which they have been known for the treatment of wide variety of diseases. The standardized extraction of the said plant was successfully performed using dichloromethane and methanol as solvents at 25°C for 24 hours. Phytochemical analysis was performed and plant showed good content of flavonoids, anthraquinone glycoside and tannins. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by nitric oxide scavenging activity, ferrous reducing power, and DPPH assay. In vitro phytotoxic activity was carried out through brine shrimp assay to calculate the cytotoxicity of the standardized extract of  R. hastatus and R. himalyica. Antifungal activity was also performed. Significant anti oxidative activity was observed, nitric oxide scavenging activity (37.8% at 0.125 mg/ml, p≤0.05), ferrous reducing power (71.48% at 0.125 mg/ml, p≤0.05) and DPPH assay (92.47% at 3.79 µg/ml, p≤0.05). Insignificant antifungal activity was obtained. Cytotoxicity was significant as R. hastatus caused 78% inhibition at 1000 µg/ml and R. himalyica showed 78% inhibition at 1000 µg/ml against standard drug. The results indicate that both R. histatus and R. himalyica have significant role in combating oxidative and fungal ailments and can be used for the treatment of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiglycation, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Peptides Derived from Tryptic Hydrolysis of Soya Bean

Abudukadeer Kuerban, Said S. Moselhy, Hanaa Ghashlan, Taha A. Kumosani, Othman A. S. Baothman, Mustafa Zeyadi, Nawal Helmi, Tahani M. Alghamdi, Mazin A. Zamzami, Muqtadir Baig Mirza, Fareeduddin Quadri Syed, Furkhan Ahmed Mohammed, Abdulrahman L. AL-Malki, Khalid O. Abulnaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37636

Aims: Bioactive peptides are acknowledged for their vital contributions to health promotion. This study aims to evaluate antiglycation, antioxidant and antiproliferative ability of peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysis of Soya bean.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2016 and June 2017.

Methodology: Hydrolysis profile was qualified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Reducing sugars-trapping ability of peptides was examined. 0.5% methacrylamido phenylboronic acid (MPBA) gel was used to investigate the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibition. The in vitro antioxidant activity of peptides were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. MCF-7, PC3, and HepG2 cell lines were used to explore the antiproliferative potency of peptides.

Results: Peptide fractions trapped reducing sugars and reduced AGEs formation, and exhibited well DPPH scavenging ability with IC50 8.96 mg/mL. Peptide fractions showed dose-dependent toxicity to the used cell lines.

Conclusion: Released bioactive peptides emphasized the value of Soya bean proteins to be used as a functional food or alternative supplementary to diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Biologically Active Marine Algae Extracts

Taha A. Kumosani, Khadijah Saeed Balamash, Hanaa Ghashlan, Youssri Ahmed Mohamed, Othman A. S. Baothman, Mustafa Zeyadi, Soonham Sami Yaghmoor, Areej H. Alyahiby, Rana R. AL-Rasheed, Wafa Y. Alturkistani, Tahani M. Alghamdi, Maryam H. AL-Zahrani, Said Salama Moselhy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/38089

Background: Marine microorganisms such as algae were identified a rich sources of biologically active compounds. This study was designed to explore the in vitro antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti proliferative activities of different algae [Gracilaria dendroides (GD), Dictyota ciliolata (DC) and Cladophora socialis (CS)] extracts obtained from Red sea at Jeddah.

Materials and Methods: Algae extracts (ethanol, chloroform and water) were tested for antioxidant activity for free radical scavenging and secondly as anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity against different cell lines. Antioxidant capacity was detected by evaluation superoxide anion radicals, reducing potential and assay of phenolic and flavonoid content in extracts.

Results: Chloroform extract of DC (CEDC) was found to have a better free radical scavenging activity (IC50= 310.58 g/ml) than methanol extract (MEDC). MEDC (IC50= 522 g/ml). The phenol level in CEDC and MEDC were 50.1 and 38.18 mg, while flavonoids were 65.58and 41.74 /mg.EDC and EDC were showed ant proliferative against MC7 and HALA 1.

Conclusion: The solvents extracts exhibited promising biological activity as antioxidants and ant proliferative action.