Open Access Original Research Article

Job Satisfaction among Retail Pharmacists in Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia

Faisal Attaya Al Zahrani, Mastour Safer Al Ghamdi, Rizwan Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37704

Aim of the Study: This study aims to highlight the factors that contribute to less job satisfaction for pharmacists, working in private community pharmacies in Eastern region of Saudi Arabia.

Material and Methods: A self-administered survey was distributed among pharmacist using a cluster area sampling method. The data was entered into a statistical software i.e.Statistical package for Social sciences (SPSS v 22) using a significance level of p < 0.05. The data analysis was done through descriptive statistics and Chi-square for finding association between variables.

Results: Majority of the respondents (79.6%) were Egyptian origin pharmacist with bachelor of pharmacy qualification (78.6%) working in chain pharmacies however none of the Saudi national pharmacist was observed in the study. Regarding degree of job satisfaction and allowances provided, most of the pharmacist seemed dissatisfied with working hours (52.4%), working shifts (37.9%) and weekend breaks (50.5%). On the other hand, some of the pharmacists looked satisfied with regard to allowances provided such as; bonus (39.8%), vacations (45.6%), tickets (65%), housing allowance (33%) and health insurance (48.5%). Regarding salaries, although half of the pharmacist (54.4%) were satisfied with salary range of SAR > 5000 however pharm-D graduates as well as pharmacists with an experience more than 10 years expressed their dissatisfaction with current salary. Furthermore, the study observed lack of Saudi national pharmacist working in any chain pharmacy which may be attributed to the fact that current salary scale is too low as compared to government sectors.

Conclusion: Though non-native pharmacist seemed satisfied with current salary wages and allowances provided with however the duration of work, work load and shifts were the most widely observed dissatisfaction factors to them. In addition, much efforts are required on behalf of government agencies and employer in order to improve the salary wages and allowances and to make it comparable up to the level of government sectors so that a competitive environment may be produced and attract more Saudi pharmacist to work and start career in private retail pharmacies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect of Alangium salviifolium (L. f.) Wang pericarp Extracts with Their Phytochemical and Antioxidant Values

Md. Nasrullah, Anamul Haque, Saeed Ahmed Alzahrani, Mohammad Ashraf Uddin, Zerina Yasmin, Md. Sahab Uddin, Yaaser Q. Almulaiky, Abudukadeer Kuerban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37887

Aims: Alangium salviifolium (L. f.) Wang is a medicinal plant of the Alanginaceae family which was used as a traditional medicine to cure or prevent a variety of ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate the anticholinesterase effects and compare the phytochemical and antioxidant values of ethanol, dichloromethane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of A. salviifolium pericarp.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in Department of Pharmacy, Comilla University, Comilla, Bangladesh and Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between January 2015 to December 2016.

Materials and Methods: The pericarp of A. salviifolium was extracted with different solvents. Ellman's assay was applied to investigate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory effect. Phytochemical screening has been done by using qualitative methods whereas total phenol content, total flavonoid content and total flavonol content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, aluminum trichloride and sodium acetate solution methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and TAC assay.

Results: Donepezil, a standard drug, showed maximum inhibitory effect of AChE (IC50: 6.30±1.23 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50: 8.70±0.21 μg/mL). EASP followed by AASP had potent inhibitory effects while CASP and DASP had mild inhibitory effects of the enzymes. Preliminary phytochemical screening exposed the presence of valuable phytochemicals with significantly (P*<0.05, P**<0.01, P***<0.001) different content of TPC, TFC and TFlC. EASP, among the extracts, had shown the highest TPC (524.28±7.14 mg/g gallic acid), followed by TFC (231.90±14.86 mg/g quercetin) and TFlC (139.44±5.55 mg/g quercetin). In fact, maximum antioxidant potential, FRAP (EC50: 50.33±4.93 μg/mL) and TAC (352.40±19.51 mg/g ascorbic acid) was found in the EASP.

Conclusion: This research has revealed that different pericarp extracts of the A. salviifolium have moderate to potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects and further analysis may find potential candidate for healing Alzheimer’s disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacists Perception of Physicians and Patients Responses towards Suggested Drug Alternative

Fatima Abdullatif Al-Qanbar, Rizwan Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Niyaz Ahmad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37706

Objective: This study aims to analyze the perceived responses from physicians and patients towards an alternative drug suggested by pharmacist in a physician prescription and to observe the reasons for rejection from physicians as well as patients.

Methods: A cross sectional study in retail and hospital pharmacists was performed. The data gathered was analyzed through Statistical package for Social sciences software (SPSS v 22) through descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests for association between variables (P<0.05).  

Results: A response rate of 87.5% was observed. The response of physicians towards pharmacist suggested alternative was observed high in retail pharmacies i.e. accepted most of the times (>50%) as compared to an acceptance rate of sometimes (25% to 49%) in hospital pharmacies. Similarly an acceptance rate of most of the times (>50%) was observed in patients visiting retail pharmacies as compared to hospital pharmacies i.e. accepted sometimes (25% to 49%). The reasons for physicians low acceptance rate or rejection were; time constraints and physician lack of trust on pharmacists, respectively. Whereas the reasons for patient low rate of acceptance or rejection were; tendency to stick to physicians prescription and patients lack of trust on pharmacists, respectively.

Conclusion: Lack of proper collaboration and trust among the two professions as well as due to more workload and job stress a lower rate of acceptance was observed among physicians and patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Optimization of Extended Release Matrix Tablets of Losartan Potassium Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Y. Dastagiri Reddy, C. Madusudhana Chetty, K. Ravi Kumar, D. Dachinamoorthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36668

The aim of this research work was to formulate and systematically evaluate in vitro performance of extended release matrix tablets of Losartan potassium. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method, applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by incorporating a 3-factor, 2-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Independent variables are the release retardant polymers such as HPMC K4M (X1), ethyl cellulose (X2), and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose(X3) and dependent variables are the percentage drug release in 0.1N HCL for 2 hours (Y1) and in 6.8 Phosphate buffer up to 24 hours (Y2) were studied. The Validation and optimization of study with 17 confirmatory runs indicated high degree of prophetic ability of response surface methodology with mean percentage error (± SD) as 1.54 ± 2.87% and 2.27 ± 1.36% drug release in 0.1N HCL and buffer. The physical evaluation and in vitro release studies were performed on all the formulations and the data were fitted to different release kinetic equations. The optimized formulation depicted a release of 16.98% and 96.26% from 0.1N HCL and buffer solutions at 24 hours. Point prediction tool of design expert software (version 8.0.1), RSM, shows 17.71% and 95.72% validity of the predicted model for drug release from 0.1N HCL and buffer solutions respectively. The optimized formulation follows Higuchi model and first order release kinetics which shows non-fickian type of release. Applying RSM, with few runs, effective extended release formulation of Losartan potassium was developed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spoilage Bacteria Associated with Selected Body Lotions Commonly Used amongst Students of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Emmanuel Ezenna, H. O. Stanley, C. N. Stanley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/33478

The study investigated the spoilage bacteria associated with selected body lotions commonly used amongst students of the University of Port Harcourt. The influence of the body lotion on the bacterial composition of the skin was also determined. Five in- use lotions were obtained from students within the University while five unused ones were purchased from stores. Skin swabs were collected before and after use of the lotion from 25 different study subjects for a period of 10 consecutive days. Bacterial counts were determined using the spread plate method. Average bacterial counts of skin swab ranged from 6.0±0.5 to 300.0±0.0 and from 2.0±0.0 to 300.0±0.0. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts of  in-use and unused lotion samples ranged from 5.84 log cfu /ml to 7.14 log cfu/ml and from 5.50 log cfu/ml to 7.04 log cfu/ml respectively. Total Staphylococcal counts ranged from 4.76 log cfu/ml to 6.39 log cfu/ml and from 4.27 log cfu/ml to 5.57 log cfu/ml respectively while total coliform counts ranged from 0 log cfu/ml to 5.88 log cfu/ml and from 0 log cfu/ml to 3.47 log cfu/ml respectively. Total Shigella counts obtained from used lotion samples ranged from 0 log cfu/ml to 5.54 log cfu/ml while it was not detected in the unused samples. The bacterial organisms isolated from the study include; Escherichia spp, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Proteus sp and Micrococcus sp. The study also showed incomplete label disclosure. The study revealed the presence of bacteria of public health importance in both the in-use and unused lotion samples. The need for stricter adoption and maintenance of current good manufacturing practices during manufacture and better hygiene practices during usage by consumers cannot be overemphasized.