Open Access Original Research Article

The Expression Patterns of APC2 and APC7 in Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Mohammad Reza Khosravi Farsani, ‏Vahid Amiri, Abbas Hajifathali, Mohamadhossein Mohammadi, Mohammad Jabari, Mehdi Allahbakhshian Farsani, Majid Asadi-Samani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36743

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous type of disease that is currently categorized based on cell morphology, immunophenotype, genetic abnormalities and gene expression pattern. Although these classifications are valuable in the determination of patient’s survival and treatment intensity, the response of patients to treatment and subsequently their survival are highly different, even in each subtype. So searching for new molecules involved in the leukemogenesis, disease progression, treatment resistance or candidate targets for therapy are critically sensed. APC/C is a multi-subunit E3 ligase that has essential role in metaphase progression and seems to be essentially involved in tumorgenesis and cancer progression. We analyzed the expression of APC2 and APC7 gene as two key subunits of this complex in 57 newly diagnosed ALL patients with quantitative RT-PCR. APC2 and APC7 were significantly over-expressed in 33 (57.9%) and 38 (66.7%) of patients respectively (P value of 0.014 and 0.009) using two-tailed Student’s t tests. This over expression was independent of cellular, immunological and molecular factors. APC/C promotes cell proliferation, a feature related to tumorgenesis and also poor prognosis in cancers such as ALL, so the determination of the pattern of APC/C subunits gene expression may help to better understand molecular basic underlying cancer and also new prognostic marker and new targets for therapy in ALL patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Tropaeolum majus L. Seed

Muhammad Umar Hayat, Muhammad Wajid, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Anjum Khursheed, Muhammad Uzair, Bashir Ahmed Chaudhary, Samina Afzal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36191

Objective: To investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Tropaeolum majus L. (T. majus) seeds.

Methods: Phytochemical screening was performed by using standard methods. The antioxidant study was done by using in vitro method such as 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis reveals presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. The extract showed moderate antioxidant activity against the tested method.

Conclusion: There is an indication that seeds of T. majus contains important phytochemicals and an antioxidant capacity comparable with standard antioxidant compounds that may be linked to its beneficial effects on health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Fatty Acid Contents and Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Hedysarum aucheri

Zafer Uyar, Ömer Koz, Ebru Uyar, Ülkü Arslan, Ismail Koyuncu, Ayşe Nalbantsoy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/37104

In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities along with total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and aqueous extracts and chemical composition and fatty acids of n-hexane extract from endemic Hedysarum aucheri were determined. The fatty acid content of the n-hexane extract was determined by GC-MS analysis. Twenty-four out of 39 compounds identified as fatty acid methyl esters constitute 84.20% of hexane extract content. Five of 6 major components were fatty acids, namely alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (32.37%), palmitic acid (24.69%), linoleic acid (LA) (9.16%), stearic acid (7.11%), Arachidic acid (3.14%), and the other one was an acyclic diterpene alcohol called phytol (12.01%). Butanol extract was found to be the richest in flavonoid (66.3 ±1.3 mg QU/g DW) and phenolic (122.4±1.6 mg GAE/g DW) compounds. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by Cupric-ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity indicating a strong correlation between flavonoid/phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Also, cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated against a panel of cancer cells (PC3, HeLa, CaCo-2, U-87MG, A549, and MCF-7) and normal cell line HEK293. Dichloromethane extract (DCM) exhibited exceptionally high tumor selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells with IC50 values varying between 0.64 and 24 µg/mL while not impairing the normal cells. DCM extract was found to possess higher cytotoxic activity towards the tested cancer cells than some anticancer drugs reported in the literature. Also, antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by agar disc diffusion and the micro-dilution methods against a series of microorganisms and hexane extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We hereby report both the pharmaceutical potential of H. aucheri concerning its various biological activities and the phytochemical composition regarding its total flavonoid, phenolic, and fatty acid content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid, Simple and Validated Method for Estimation of Zolpidem by UPLC in Tablet Dosage Form

Raja Abhilash Punagoti, Venkateshwar Rao Jupally

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/5728

Aim: To create and approve a novel and fast RP-UPLC technique for the estimation of zolpidem in tablet dosage form.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of pharmaceutical analysis, S.V.S. school of Pharmacy, Bheemaram, between January 2013 and May 2013.

Methodology: Chromatographic division was accomplished on a Waters Acquity HSS T-3 C18 stationary phase (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) utilizing an isocratic technique with versatile mobile phase made out of Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile in the proportion 40:60 v/v at a stream rate of 1 mL/min. The temperature was kept constant and detection was made at 243 nm. The run time was as short as 6 min. The proposed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) rules for parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness etc.

Results: The developed method was linear for zolpidem from 30-70 μg/ml and the linear regression obtained was > 0.999. Precision, established by intra- and inter-day assays shown relative standard deviation (R.S.D) values within 1.5%. Recovery data were in the range 99.8% to 101.4% with R.S.D. values < 1.5%.

Conclusion: The proposed method satisfied all the validation parameters prescribed by ICH. The ultra fast analysis with RT 2.754 min renders the analysis of a bulk samples in a less time and, therefore, should be cost effective for everyday analysis in the estimation of Zolpidem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on a Hydrophilic Cellulose Matrix Derived from Ipomoea batatas Tubers II: Application as a Filler-disintegrant in Piroxicam Orally Dispersible Tablets

Ugoeze Kenneth C, Brown Sinyeofori A

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36903

Aim: In this work, piroxicam orally dispersible tablets (ODTs) was formulated using a hydrophilic cellulose matrix, I-hydrocel derived from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas as a filler-disintegrant in comparison with avicel PH 101 and lactose.

Methods: The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of a mixture of piroxicam and I-hydrocel was carried out for compatibility studies. Granules containing piroxicam (10.0% w/w) (20.0 mg per tablet), mannitol, 25.0% w/w, PVP, 2.5% w/w and I-hydrocel or avicel PH 101 or lactose (62.0% w/w) were prepared by wet granulation method. Their micromeritic properties were evaluated using standard methods. They were lubricated with 0.5% w/w magnesium stearate and compressed into tablets at 0.75 tons with an 8.5 mm concave punch fitted in a table-top single punch tablet press. The properties of the tablets were studied using the British Pharmacopoeia standards alongside tablets wetting time, water absorption ratio and the dissolution efficiency (DE).

Results: Piroxicam and I-hydrocel were compatible. The granules were compressible and fairly flowable.  The uniformity of weight of tablets was within acceptable range. Tablets with the highest mechanical strength were obtained with I-hydrocel (P = 0.000) while the tablets containing avicel PH 101 wetted most easily, disintegrated fastest (P = 0.000) and showed the highest water absorption ratio (P = 0.000). However, the respective value of DE was as follows: I-hydrocel (89.69%) > avicel PH 101(79.72%) > lactose (59.0%) (P = 0.000).

Conclusions: The high release rate and bioavailability of piroxicam, a poorly water-soluble drug from the ODTs formulated with I-hydrocel may be due to its hydrophilic nature which may have enhanced the solubility of the drug. Therefore, I-hydrocel, being a new excipient could serve as an economic and efficient filler-disintegrant in the formulation of piroxicam orally dispersible tablets.