Open Access Original Research Article

Central Nervous System Depressant Effect of Senna occidentalis Linn. (Fabaceae) Leaf Extract in Mice

A. Ukwubile Cletus, Musa Y. Dibal, Troy S. Malgwi, M. Ibrahim Hadiza, Y. Abdulrahman Adama

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/25432

Senna occidentalis has been used in traditional medicine in Nigeria for managing various ailments in traditional medicine. This study was aimed at evaluating the central nervous system depressant effect of ethanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis in mice. Thirty mice of either sex were taken and divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was considered as negative control in diazepam-induced sleeping time (normal saline + diazepam), second, third, fourth and fifth as test groups (with 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg doses of the extract + diazepam). All the drugs were administered intraperitoneal (i.p). The extract showed significant decrease in the onset of sleep at doses of 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg (p<0.05; One-way ANOVA). The number of head dips have significantly decreased at p<0.05 for all the graded doses of the extract. Beam walking test for motor deficits, showed significant increase in the number of foot slips at the same graded doses at  p<0.05  with no significant difference in the time taken to complete the task. The study showed that leaf ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis possess CNS depressant effect, and serve as a good sedative as such, can save patients from many doses of anesthetic medication usually administered during surgery in conventional medicine when used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Atezolizumab in Bulk and Its Injectable Dosage Form

D. China Babu, C. Madhusudhana Chetty, Sk. Mastanamma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/35615

Aim: A new simple reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of Atezolizumab in bulk and its injectable formulation.

Study Design: Quantitative and qualitative estimation and degradation studies of AZM by using Rp-HPLC.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was performed at Santhiram College of Pharmacy and duration of study within 3 months.

Methodology: The method was developed and validated and better results were obtained by using Polaris C18-A (150 mm—4.6 mm i.d., 5µm particle size column by using mobile phase 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile: water 90:10 v/v. The mobile phase flow rate was fixed 0.75 mL/min.

Results: The mean retention time was 2.2 min. Correlation coefficient calibration curve within the detection range 75-225 µg/mL and R2 value was found to be 0.999. The Detection limit and Quantification limit were performed for AZM and found to be 15.24-50.80 µg/mL. The assay was perfomed and the percentage purity of the AZM was found to be 100.27%. Forced degradation studies were performed with acid, base, water, H2O2 and UV-light.

Conclusion: The preliminary results indicated that the developed method was found to be a simple specific, precise, accurate and robust for the resolve of AZM in the bulk and marketed injectable formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation the Antibacterial Activity of Portulaca oleracea L. Tissue Cultures in vitro

Asma G. Oraibi, Ahmed A. AlShammari, Rana A. Mohsien, Wisam J. Obaid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36071

The objective of this research was to studying the antibacterial activity of Portulaca oleracea L. in vitro cultures. P. oleracea leaves were collected from the local markets. Callus tissues were induced from the plant leaves (expalnt) through inoculating the explants on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2, 4-D (0.0, 2.0 or 3.0 mg/l) and Kintin (0.0 or 0.5 mg/l). All cultures were incubated at 25 ± 2°C in dark.  Water and ethanol extracts of P. oleracea were prepared. Bacterial samples were collected, they consist of gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antibacterail activity of P. oleracea extracts were investigated using diffusion method. Results shown that mean % callus induction, callus fresh weight and callus dry weight inceasred significantly in 2.0 mg/l 2, 4-D or 3.0 mg/l 2, 4-D with 0.5 mg/l kin in comparsion to the control (0.0), and the highest mean obtained at 3.0 mg/l 2, 4-D with 0.5 mg/l kin recording 80% and 94 mg and 52 mg for % callus induction, callus fresh weight and callus dry weight respectively. Also there was no significat differences ocurred in the mean inhibition zone diameter (mm) of the bacterial isolates treated with water or ethanol extracts of callus tissues recording 10 and 9.5 mm respectively compard with control (14.5 mm) and mean inhibition zone (mm) significantly decreased in other treatment types in compasion to the control. The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated a promising potential of P. oleracea extracts as antibacterial agent and  inspite of the small inhibition zone diameter obtaind using plant extract but it has proved highly efficiency as an anti bacterial compared with the higher concentration of the standard antibiotic used in this experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Histomorphological, Toxicological and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Calliandra portoricensis Root in Rodents

V. N. Enwuru, S. O. Ogbonnia, G. O. Mbaka, J. E. Emordi, D. A. Ota, P. Onyebuchi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34701

Objective: To evaluate histomorphological, toxicological and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Calliandra portoricensis root in rodents.

Introduction: C. portoricensis is usually administered for a lengthy period in treating diseases like dysmenorrheal, rheumatism and convulsion.

Methods: Microbial purity was evaluated on some bacterial and fungal organisms. Toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by administering graded oral doses of the extract from 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight (bwt). Wistar rats were fed different doses of the extract for 30 days to evaluate their biochemical profiles while vital organs were processed for histology.

Results: Extract inhibited Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumonia ATCC 49619 organisms at 150, 300 and 600 mg/ml with the inhibitory diameters of 13.0, 14.0 and 16.0 mm for E. faecalis and 10.0, 11.0 and 13.0 mm for S. pneumonia. Median acute toxicity (LD50) was 5.0 g/kg bwt. Significant increase (p≤ 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase occurred while hepatic tissue morphology showed sinusoidal and portal congestions. Also significant increase (p≤ 0.05) in the plasma creatinine and urea occurred.

Conclusion: C. portoricensis showed to be an effective antibacterial agent and exhibited no toxic effect at normal dose. However administration above the recommended dose might be injurious to the liver.

Open Access Review Article

Transdermal Drug Delivery: Microneedles, Their Fabrication and Current Trends in Delivery Methods

M. Ogundele, H. K. Okafor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/36164

The past few decades have seen a tremendous growth in the use of microneedles in the transdermal delivery of therapeutics. This is due to the several advantages that microneedles offer in the delivery of compounds. Therapeutics are delivered in a simple, minimally invasive and painless manner. This has led to the employment of different materials such as silicon and polymer in the fabrication of this device. Also, methods have been introduced in the fabrication of microneedles to meet the high demand this technology raises. This review article is meant to give a foundational knowledge about this rapidly evolving tool with detailed emphasis on their fabrication and delivery methods as well as future prospects of microneedles in the medical industry.