Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Medication Use among Hypertensives Attending a Specialist Outpatients Clinic in North-Central Nigeria

Umar G. Adamu, Aisha Abdulahi, Fatima K. Ibrahim, Indogesit O. Ibok

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/33841

Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular risk factor encountered in Cardiology Clinics in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive medications and conformity to guidelines by physicians at the Cardiology Clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Bida North-Central Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Cardiology clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Bida, North-Central Nigeria, between October and December 2016.

Methodology: We recruited 271 hypertensives (202 women, 69 men; age range 20-90 years) to assess the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive medications among hypertensive patients by Physicians. Data collection was done using a semi-structured questionnaire. The age, sex, occupation, level of education and hypertensive medications were noted.

Results: The mean number of drugs used by the patient was 2.26 ± 0.81. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug either alone or in combination was diuretics (78.2%). Others include calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (60.1%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) (57.6%), β blockers (13.7%), centrally acting drugs CAD (13.3%)  and angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs (3.3%).42.8% were rseceiving two drugs, 35.4% three drugs, 3.7% four drugs, and 0.4% five drugs. Most of the hypertensives were on more than one drug (82.3%) compared to 17.7%).

Conclusion: The most commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive drug was diuretics alone or in combination. Most of the hypertensive patients received more than one drug and the prescription pattern conforms to the guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antiglycation Effects of Some Plants Used in Hypolipidaemic Formulations or as Spices

H. K. I. Perera, W. K. V. K. Premadasa, W. I. T. Fernando, J. A. V. P. Jayasinghe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34049

Aims: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, which leads to acceleration of protein glycation. Some glycation products form inter molecular cross-links, contributing to chronic diabetic complications. Determination of protein glycation inhibitory potential of medicinal plants may offer safe therapeutic avenues in preventing diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the antiglycation effects of nine plants which included spices and some medicinal plants used in hypolipidaemic formulations.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka between March 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: Crude methanol extracts of nine, dried plant parts namely, Brassica juncea (BJ) seed, Coscinium fenestratum (CF) root, Cuminum cyminum  (CC) seed, Cyperus rotundus (CR) root, Foeniculum vulgare (FV) seed, Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) root, Acorus calamus (AC) rhizome, Trachyspermum roxburghianum (TR) leaf and Trigonella foenum-graecum (TF) seed and standard inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (1 mg/mL) were used. Inhibitory effects of plant extracts (0.5/ 2/ 5 mg/mL) on fructosamine formation, glycation and glycation induced cross-linking were assessed.

Results: Fructosamine formation was significantly inhibited (p<0.001) in the presence of CF, CR, PK and AC (2 mg/ ml). Antiglycation effects of these four plants were demonstrated when the extent of glycation was assessed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of AC, CF, CR and PK extracts (2 mg/ ml) were revealed using sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At 0.5 mg/ ml, this inhibitory effect remained only in CR and PK. When 5 mg/ ml was used, BJ showed inhibitory effects while CC, TR and TF without an effect. Accordingly, the highest inhibitory effects were seen in CR and PK.

Conclusion: Antiglycation effects of root extracts of AC, CF, CR and PK were demonstrated with better effects in CR and PK.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidaemia Effects of Methanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale and its Role in Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34396

This study was designed to examine the hypoglycemic and antioxidant defense by methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on alloxan induced diabetes in Wistar rats.The preliminary study showed that Z. officinale extract was able to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2,-azinobis (3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals and these radicals scavenging abilities were found to be dose-dependent. Alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats was accompanied by increases in serum glucose and activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transferase (AST). Diabetic rats also exhibited lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatic and renal tissues as compared with normal rats. However, supplementation of diabetic rats with Z. officinale extract at the doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight for 7 days caused reversal of all these effects significantly, it also resulted in dose-dependent hypoglycaemic status and improved the lipid profile of the treated groups indicating that the high levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol associated with diabetes can also be significantly managed with the extract. These findings suggest that Z. officinale treatment exerts a therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress, and hepatic and renal damage. Z. officinale was found to contain high level of total phenolic content (52.42 mg/g in GAE/g dried weight) which maybe speculated to account for the observed pharmacological effects of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Emulsifying Agent: Cucumis sativus Linnaeus Mucilage

Oluyemisi Adebowale Bamiro, Tolulope Omolola Ajala, Emmanuella Gbade Adenokun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34465

Aim: This study aims at investigating the emulsifying properties of Cucumis sativus mucilage, compare with gelatin and tragacanth with further assessment of their combined effects on the emulsion properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria and Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between September 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: Cod liver oil and liquid paraffin emulsions were prepared by the wet gum method with the different emulsifying agents. Primary emulsions of cod liver oil were prepared using a ratio of 4:2:1 for oil, water and gum while 3:2:1 was used for liquid paraffin. Cucumis was also combined with gelatin and tragacanth respectively at different ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3). The emulsions were assessed for emulsion type, creaming, viscosity, globule sizes and size distribution.

Results: The emulsions formulated were creamy and dilution tests showed that they were oil-in-water in nature. The ranking of the creaming for cod liver oil and liquid paraffin emulsions was tragacanth>Cucumis>gelatin and gelatin>Cucumis>tragacanth respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.001) in the viscosities of the emulsions with tragacanth having the highest values. The average globule sizes ranged between 2.5-97.5 µm. The effect of storage on the viscosity showed that viscosity of emulsions decreased with time.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicates Cucumis sativus mucilage could be useful as a primary emulsifying agent in oil-in-water emulsions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activities in the Stem Extracts of Derris trifoliata, a Mangrove Shrub

Aritra Simlai, Anjali Gangwar, Sarthaki Avinash Ghonge, Amit Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JPRI/2017/34455

Aims: An in-depth study on the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of stem tissue of Derris trifoliata Lour. (Fabaceae), a mangrove shrub from Sundarban estuary, India.

Methodology: Phytochemical analyses were carried out using established methods for quantitative determination of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial potential of various extracts of D. trifoliata were evaluated by disc diffusion technique against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The antioxidative efficacy was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The tissue extracts were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation and the fractions with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography.

Results: Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of appreciable amount of phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloids. All the extracts have shown activity against B. subtilis and B. coagulans, among which the methanolic has been found to be most effective. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were found to be stable despite drastic pH and thermal treatments. The antioxidative property was also found to be quite appreciable and was considerably stable after thermal treatments. A number of the phytochemical fractions were found to possess antimicrobial/ antioxidative properties when subjected to TLC-bioautography.

Conclusion: The study suggests Derris trifoliata stem as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural antimicrobial/antioxidative agents in clinical, pharmaceutical and food processing industries.