Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Mindfulness and Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies with Stress among Female Basketball Athletes in Tehran

Zeinab Fazli, Shahrbanoo Ghahari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/34105

Introduction: The well-being and satisfaction with life are two indicators of mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and psychological well-being, and coping strategies with stress in female basketball athletes in Tehran.

Methods and Materials: Among all women basketball athletes in Tehran in 2016, two-hundred and fifty women were randomly selected. All samples completed Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire, Ryff Psychological well-being Questionnaire and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression inSpss-22.

Results: The results confirmed the hypothesis of this study and suggested a significant positive relationship between the components of mindfulness and psychological well-being, and coping with stress strategies (p<0.01).

Conclusion: There was a significant positive relationship between components of mindfulness and psychological well-being, and coping strategies with stress

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifilarial Activity of Cucurbita pepo ovifera var ovifera (Cucurbitaceae) on Onchocerca ochengi Adult Worms

Justin Kalmobé, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Jacqueline Vildina Dikti, Eva Liebau

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33381

One of the strategies for developing novel pharmaceutical drugs is to use natural sources such as plants for therapeutic treatment. Plant extracts are a cocktail of compounds which act synergically and can improve treatment effectiveness, reduce therapeutic duration and resistance. The ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds of Cucurbita pepo ovifera var ovifera from Sudano-Guinean and Sudano-Sahelian zones of Cameroon were evaluated on the cattle parasite nematode Onchocerca ochengi. Worms were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts in RPMI-1640 supplemented with streptomycin and gentamicin. Mortality at 37°C was monitored after 24, 48 and 72 h. Ivermectin was used as positive control and DMSO as negative. Plant extracts from the two ecological zones showed anthelminthic activities on O. ochengi after 72 h with LC50 varying from 20 to 1090 µg /mL. The highest antifilarial activity in Sudano-Guinean zone was obtained with leave extract of C. pepo ovifera (LC50 of 20 µg/mL), while highest antifilarial activity in Sudano-Sahelian zone was obtained with seed extracts of the plant with LC50 value of 17 µg/mL after 72 h. These results show that anthelmintic activity depends on the part of the plant and the ecological zones. Additionally, the plant is not toxic. These results on the ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds of C. pepo ovifera var ovifera confirmed the use of this plant in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat disease due to nematodes. The plants could be used as alternative anthelmintic to fight against Human and Bovine onchocerciasis

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Fennel Oil on Cyclophosphamide Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Saber A. Sakr, Somaya Y. Shalaby, Rawan H. Beder

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/34197

Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is an alkylating agent widely used as an anticancer and immunosuppressive drug. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) essential oil is a traditional medicine used against many diseases. The present work studied the effect of fennel oil against liver damage induced by the anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (CPA) in albino rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups: group1: control, group2: orally given fennel oil (1 ml/kg body weight once a week for six weeks), group3: treated with CPA (15 mg/kg body weight once a week for six weeks) and group4: treated with CPA and fennel oil. The liver removed for histological and immunohistochemical preparation. Blood was collected and sera were prepared for biochemical analysis. The results revealed that CPA caused histological alterations in the liver including degeneration of hepatic cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation, fatty infiltration and congestion of blood vessels. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that both cell proliferation marker Ki67 and apoptotic marker caspase-3 were increased. Biochemical results revealed increase in the liver enzymes activity ALT and AST. Treating rats with CPA and fennel oil caused an improvement in the histological structure of the liver and decreased Ki67 and caspase-3. Moreover, ALT and AST activity appeared with normal value. It is concluded that administration of fennel oil exhibited ameliorative effect against CPA-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats. This effect may be attributed to the antioxidant property of fennel oil

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Crystal Derived from Stevia rebaudiana Leaves on Alloxan Induced Type-1 Diabetic Mice

S. R. Das, A. S. M. E. Istiak, P. Hazra, U. Habiba, M. K. H. Bhuiyan, K. Rafiq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33740

The study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic effects of crystals derived from Stevia rebaudiana leaves in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Normal rats were used to evaluate whether the stevia crystal have any adverse effects on body weight and blood glucose of healthy rats. The rats were divided into two groups (n=5); healthy control rats and stevia treated healthy rats (1 g/kg/day orally). To evaluate the antidiabetic effects of stevia crystal, mice were divided into five equal (n=5) groups; healthy control, diabetic control, stevia crystal @ 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt, and Amaryl® @ 800 µg/kg daily to compare the efficacy. Alloxan monohydrate was injected in mice at a dose rate of 120 mg/kg intraperitoneally for diabetic induction. Result of the present study showed that stevia crystal at a high daily dose did not have any significant effect on body weight but it reduced blood glucose level non-significantly in healthy animal. The antidiabetic effects of stevia crystal was evaluated based on glucose lowering capacity, improvement of body weight loss, changes in lipid profile, and renal and pancreas protective capacity. Treatment with stevia crystal @500 mg/kg improved body weight loss and reduced blood glucose level significantly (P<0.01) in diabetic animal. Stevia @500 mg/kg decreased cholesterol level non-significantly whereas it reduce the triglyceride level significantly (P<0.01). In histopathology study, stevia crystal showed renal and pancreas protective effect with slightly restoration of structural damage in both organs. Based on present studies data it may conclude that crystalline compounds derived from Stevia rebaudiana leaves may have antidiabetic properties that need further characterization

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Tiliacora triandra Stem Bark

Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Md. Shamsuzzaman, Mahfuza Khatun, Md. Mostafijur Rahman, A. S. M. Sakhawat Hossain, A. H. M . Khurshid Alam, Ashik Mosaddik, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/34059

Aim: Tiliacora triandra (T. triandra), a species of Menispermaceae family, has folkloric reputation for the treatment of several diseases including infectious diseases in Thailand and neighboring countries. The present study aimed at screening the stem bark of T. triandra for its phytochemical constituents and its antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi.

Materials and Methods: The dried stem bark of T. triandra was extracted with methanol and qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay method against some bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by serial dilution method to establish the antimicrobial potential of the extract.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Susceptibility testing by disc diffusion assay showed significant antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) where the zones of inhibition were 15 mm and 21 mm at the potencies of 250 and 500 µg/disc, respectively. The stem bark extract also showed moderate activity against Shigella sonnei (14 mm), Shigella dysenteriae (13 mm), Agrobacterium spp (13 mm) bacteria and fungus, Aspergillus niger (14 mm) at 250 µg/disc. The results also revealed equal MIC and MBC values of 62.5ug/mL against E. coli.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the methanol extract of T. triandra possesses potent antimicrobial activity which may be attributed to the identified phytochemical components of the plant extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Anti-bacterial Ointment from Two Extracts of Curcuma longa L. and Aloe vera L.

Abdulkarim Kassem Alzomor, Nahlah Mansour Noman, Lamia'a Al-Akhali, Ahmed Al-Qubati, Ahmed Al-Shawafi, Adnan Al-Serry, Sadam Al-Zedaar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33737

Aim of this Study: This study aimed to extract, formulate and evaluate an antibacterial ointment from extracts of two Yemeni plants.

Methods: The extraction of both Curcuma longa and Aloe vera was performed using alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic solvents, respectively. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of C. longa and A. vera extracts was investigated using well agar diffusion and disc diffusion method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Finally, the ointment was prepared from a combination of these two extracts then stability study testing was performed and also the in-vitro activity antibacterial of this ointment against the above bacteria was done.

Results: The extracts inhibited the growth of both bacteria with zone of inhibition between 6 mm-14mm at 0.52 mg-20 mg/100 μl. The MIC of C. longa and A. vera extract were 0.25 mg/100 μl and 0.4 mg/100 μl respectively in P. aeruginosa and 0.25 mg/100 μl in S. aureus for both extracts. The prepared ointment showed satisfactory physicochemical results and the antibacterial activity was 20 mm and 7 mm for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. The pH was in a proper range (pH 5.2-5.5). The formulation was found to be stable during stability study according to ICH guideline (25 ± 2°C/65 ± 5% RH and 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5% RH) for one month. The assay test of active ingredient was done using UV -Visible spectrophotometry. Curcumin content was 59.70% to 59.78% in ointment. Aloin assay was 81 to 81.21% in the prepared ointment.

Conclusion: These finding showed that the formulated new antibacterial ointment is stable and economic formula and consider as database for further clinical studies in spite of both plants used safely in large doses in traditional medicine. 

Open Access Review Article

Conifer Cones: An Alternative Raw Material for Industry

Halil Turgut Sahin, Omer Umit Yalcin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/34153

The cone is an organ of conifers that contains the reproductive structures. There is growing interest products from natural materials in worldwide. However, the chemical compounds from cones are great interest because of its residue products. A number of studies on conifer cones haveavailable in literature. Majority of these studies are on morphological, chemical and material properties of cones.

All these findings have contribute to better utilization of materials from conifer cones as new medicinal plant products. However, it was consistently reported that the chemical constituents of cones changed depend on geographical, seasonal, genotypic and environmental situations. It was reported that conifer cones have similar chemical constituents like wood but in various proportion. They markedly contain rich of phenoloic compounds and some extractives. They primarilly consists cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses as major constituents. They have also some condense tannins, resin acids, stilbenes, flavonoids, etc. Many of researchers have already reported that these extracts, which have various proportions in different species may offer some advantages in terms of utilization from waste materials and may show exceptional medicinal properties.

A number of different approaches have applied to find alternative and economical utilization from coniferous cones. It has also used for manufacturing various kinds of composite and paper material as substituent of wood. It has already tried to use for particleboard, fiberboard and plastic composite process aiming to without lowering properties. The results reported in that area is promising. It has been utilized for purifying of waters as bioabsorbent or scavengers for heavy metals from waste streams. It has also found to be useful for producing cellulose with its intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight. However, it has already well explained that some extracts from cones show antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial properties and may cure some disorders of humans. The utilization of these constituents from as a forest residue material may offer many possible applications as raw material.