Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Training Based on Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) on Rural Females’ Participation in Pap smear

Afshin Bahmani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Behnaz Enjezab, Mohsen Askarshahi, Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32965

Background: Decision making for adopting a health behavior is a process involving passing through different stages.

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the decision-making stages based on Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) in Pap test in rural women.

Methods: This study was conducted implementing a quasi-experimental method. The participants were divided into two groups as experimental and control groups using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) among 180 rural females in Sarvabad. In treating the experimental group, the methods of lecturing with question and answer, playing videos, specialized consulting and pamphlet were used. The data gathering tool included a questionnaire consisting a demographic variables and variables affecting the stages of PAPM. Data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and descriptive statistical methods.

Results: The results showed that 45% of the participants found their way to the sixth stage, i.e., practice stage (doing Pap smear). In comparison of the means of the scores of psychological variables affecting the decision process in Pap smear test, there was a significant relationship between the experimental and control groups based on Mann-Whitney test and control groups based on variables, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and awareness. But the perceived severity was not statistically significant. Chance of entering the sixth stage in the intervention group was 2.5 times higher than the control group.

Conclusions: Females for Pap smear at the same stage of the decision were not on the same basis. Thus, educational interventions should be done at each stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermodynamic Analysis for Adsorption of Amoxicillin onto Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Ali Joghtaei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33212

The effect of temperature on the equilibrium adsorption of Amoxicillin (AMO) from aqueous solution using modified magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTS) was investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using three widely applied isotherms: Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm fit the experimental results well. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models and the intraparticle diffusion model. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately represented by pseudo-second-order model. Standard free energy changes (△G0), standard enthalpy change (△H0), and standard entropy change (△S0) were calculated at different temperatures. The △G0 values were negative and △H0 values and △S0 values of MMWCNTS were positive; and suggested that the AMO adsorption on MMWCNTS was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Lannea acida Stem Bark

George Owusu, Jones Ofori-Amoah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33266

Background: Different parts of Lannea acida A. Rich (fam: Anarcadiaceae) are used traditionally to treat various ailments including inflammation, facial pain, schistosomiasis, haemorrhoids and toothache.

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Lannea acida.

Methodology: Rats were given sub-plantar injection of prostaglandin E2 to induce oedema, which was measured using calipers over 2½ hours at 30 min interval. In the acetic acid–induced abdominal writhing test, mice were given intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and writhing movements were recorded. Oedema test was run for both prophylactic and curative protocols. In both paw oedema and writhing test models, inhibitory effects of the plant extract were compared with diclofenac.

Results: Aqueous extract (30 – 300 mg/kg) of Lannea acida stem bark significantly reduced prostaglandin E2–induced paw oedema in both prophylactic and curative protocols. The extract also significantly inhibited acetic acid–induced abdominal writhing movement in Imprint Control Region (ICR) mice.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Lannea acida stem bark inhibited prostaglandin E2–induced paw oedema in rats and acetic acid–induced writhing behaviour in ICR mice; indicating a possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Methanol Leaf Extract of Arachis hypogea

R. C. Ibeh, G. S. Aloh, G. C Ikechukwu, S. O. Ebhohon, U. I. Edward, C. J. Njoku, F. O. Azubike-Izah, E. U. Ejiofor, C. I. Nwankwo, C. E. Oriaku

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33210

The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of methanol extract of Arachis hypogea leaves were studied. At 400 mg/kg, the extract significantly suppressed the development of hind paw oedema induced by egg albumin, which compares favorably with a standard anti–inflammatory drug aspirin (acetylsalicylate) which at 100 mg/kg inhibits egg-albumin induced rat paw oedema. It was observed that the extract significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose dependent fashion. At 0.6 and 0.7 mg/ml the percentage inhibition of platelet aggregation was observed to be 53.13 and 68.75% which compare closely to the standard drug indomethacin at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml which was found to be 53.13 and 65.63% respectively. Similarly, there was also an observable decrease in the activity of prostaglandin synthase which was dosage dependent at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml, the percentage enzyme activity was 65, 70 and 95% respectively. Also, at 1 and 4 mg/ml of indomethacin, the percentage enzyme activity was 94.75 and 99.25% respectively. There was non-significant difference (P<0.05) in the selected liver function parameters assayed in all the groups after 21 days of administration. The study shows that the extract may contain anti-inflammatory agents with hepatoprotective properties and may yet serve as template for the development of more synthetic anti-inflammatory agents of clinical significance.

Open Access Review Article

Mesoporous Silica as a Carrier for Amorphous Solid Dispersion

Smruti P. Chaudhari, Anshul Gupte

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/33553

In the past decade, the discovery of active pharmaceutical substances with high therapeutic value but poor aqueous solubility has increased, thus making it challenging to formulate these compounds as oral dosage forms. The bioavailability of these drugs can be increased by formulating these drugs as an amorphous drug delivery system. Use of porous media like mesoporous silica has been investigated as a potential means to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to stabilize the amorphous drug delivery system. These materials have nanosized capillaries and the large surface area which enable the materials to accommodate high drug loading and promote the controlled and fast release. Therefore, mesoporous silica has been used as a carrier in the solid dispersion to form an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Mesoporous silica is also being used as an adsorbent in a conventional solid dispersion, which has many useful aspects. This review focuses on the use of mesoporous silica in ASD as potential means to increase the dissolution rate and to provide or increase the stability of the ASD. First, an overview of mesoporous silica and the classification is discussed. Subsequently, methods of drug incorporation, the stability of dispersion and, much more are discussed.