Open Access Original Research Article

Active Phytochemical Detecting, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Apoptotic Activities of Ethyl Acetate and Methanol Extracts of Galium aparine L.

Özlem Sultan Aslantürk, Tülay Aşkin Çelik, Burçin Karabey, Fatih Karabey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32762

The aim of this study was to detect active phytochemicals in ethyl acetate (EAE) and methanol (ME) extracts of Galium aparine L. and determine in vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of these extracts.

The phytochemicals present in the plant were determined using standard methods and HPLC.

EAE and ME of Galium aparine arial parts were tested for antioxidant (by using DPPH radical scavenging, H2O2 scavenging and metal chelating assays), cytotoxic (by using MTT assay on MCF-7 breast cancer and Caco-2 colon cancer cells), and apoptotic activity (DNA diffusion assay on MCF-7 breast cancer and Caco-2 colon cancer cells). Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as control cells.

As a result of phytochemical screening of EAE and ME of Galium aparine arial parts, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones and saponins were detected. Furthermore, rutin, a flavonoid phytochemical was found in both of the extracts by HPLC analysis. EAE and ME have cytotoxic and apoptotic activity on human MCF-7 breast cancer and Caco-2 colon cancer cells. These activities may depend on polarity of solvents used in the extraction and on concentration of the extracts. EAE and ME showed strong DPPH• radical scavenging, very low H2O2 scavenging and metal chelation activity. Besides, EAE showed higher cytotoxic and apoptotic effect on human peripheral lymphocytes compared to ME. The G. aparine EAE and ME led cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer and Caco-2 colon cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Decoctions on Gasoline Vapour-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Female Rats

Christopher E. Ekpenyong

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32895

Aims: Recent research indicates that plant molecules, particularly those that are rich with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory constituents, can modify and prevent the detrimental effects of gasoline compounds on reproductive endpoints. However, whether C. citratus decoction can alleviate gasoline vapour (GV)-induced derangement of female reproductive hormones has not yet been documented. In this study, the capacity of C. citratus decoction was evaluated for its ability to alleviate GV-induced reproductive toxicity in female rats.

Study Design: Seventy-two female Wistar albino rats weighing 185 ± 11.2 g were placed into six groups (n = 12 per group): the control (group 1, G1), GV alone (G2), GV plus C. citratus decoction (500 mg/kg; G3), (1000 mg/kg; G4), (1500 mg/kg; G5), and GV plus vitamin C (200 mg/kg; G6).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. All groups were treated for 35 days.

Methodology: Serum levels of the female reproductive hormones progesterone (P3) estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA; an oxidative stress marker) in the animals were assessed using standard procedures.

Results: The results showed that GV significantly (p < 0.05) decreased serum levels of P3, E2, LH, FSH, SOD and increased serum MDA levels compared to the levels in the control animals.

However, co-administration of C. citratus at different doses to the animals in G3, G4, and G5 and vitamin C to the animals in G6 dose-dependently significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of the GV-reduced reproductive hormones and antioxidant enzyme and decreased the GV-increased oxidative stress marker levels to levels similar to those in the control group.

Conclusion: Thus, C. citratus decoction has an ameliorative effect on GV-induced reproductive dysfunction and oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective and Hepatotoxic Activities of Root Extracts of Cyperus pertenuis in Rats

Aamir Mushtaq, Shehla Rehmat, Mehwish Jamil, Asifa Bashir, Qurat-Ul-Ain ., Habib Anwar, Sarah Rashid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32270

Aim of Study: The present study was conducted to assess the role of root extracts of Cyperus pertenuis (CP) in its ability to protect liver cells alongside the evaluation of its hepatotoxic effects if any.

Methodology: Dried powdered roots (1kg) of CP were macerated in ethanol (5 L) for five days. The residue obtained after filtration was then macerated in n-hexane (2 L) for 5 days. Both filtrates were concentrated by rotavapor to semi-solid pastes and in-vitro anti-oxidant activity was found by 2,2–Diphenyl–1­–Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. 42 rats were placed in seven groups (n=6). Group-I (vehicle control) was administered with 5% Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Group-II (disease control) was given paracetamol (1 g/kg/p.o) for seven days. Group-III (standard) was administered with silymarin (25 mg/kg/p.o) for seven days. Groups IV–VII were given plant extracts in different doses for seven days prior to administration of paracetamol. Blood was collected 18 hours after administration of paracetamol and serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Total Bilirubin (TB) were assessed. Moreover, toxicity and histopathological studies were also performed.

Results: In disease control group, the levels of ALT, AST, ALP and TB were observed as 174.5±1.8 u/l, 215.7±5.4 u/l, 689.8±9.1 u/l and 1±.06 mg/dl, respectively which were reduced significantly to 146.7±3.3 u/l, 139.5±6.5 u/l, 508.3±3.2 u/l and .81±.04 mg/dl in plant treated group (400 mg/kg/p.o). Necrotic lesions were observed in histopathological slides of disease control group while extract treated liver were free of necrosis and other structural damages. LD50 calculated for plant extract was 3162 mg/kg/p.o.

Conclusion: It is thus concluded that C. pertenuis root extract is a potent hepatoprotective agent and shows hepatotoxicity only at very high doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Validated RP-HPLC Method for Simultanious Estimation of Cefadroxil and Ambroxol in Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Tribhuvan Singh, Dhiraj Kumar, Anurag Mishra, Sandeep Arora, D. V. Kishore Kumar, Sagar Pamu, Himansu Bhusan Samal, Velupula Nishanth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32225

A precise, accurate, economical and simple HPLC (reverse phase) method was developed for the estimation of Cefadroxil and Ambroxol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Method was performed on a octadecyl silane column with dimensions 4.6 x 250 mm having particle size 5 micron. The mobile phase used in the method is methanol: phosphate buffer pH 3 (60:40v/v). The rate of flow was maintained at 1.5 ml/ min and effluent was monitored at 243 nm. Retention times were observed 2.3 min and 3.3 min for CFX and AXL respectively. The standard calibration curve was found linear over a range of 16–80 µg/ml and 2-10 µg/ml for CFX and AXL respectively. Similarly an average correlation coefficient was also obtained at 0.999 for CFX and AXL. LOQ limit was found at 2 µg/ml and absolute recovery was found 99.6% and 99.5% for CFX and AXL respectively. This method can be utilized for routine analysis of CFX and AXL in pure and dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Biochemical Properties of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seeds

G. T. Adedeji, O. Bamidele, A. Ogunbiyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/32346

Watermelon is a commonly consumed, but this consumption is usually limited to the fruit. Phytochemical constituents of watermelon have known advantages, however the seeds of the plant are usually thrown away. This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of consumption of watermelon seeds, assessing their effects on blood, liver and general metabolism. Twenty-four (24) male rats were divided into four (4) groups consisting of six (6) rats each and were treated for 20 days. Group 1 (control) rats received normal saline, group 2 were given 100mg/kg of the Citrullus lanatus extract, while group 3 and 4 received 200 and 300 mg/kg of the Citrullus lanatus extract respectively. Blood samples were collected after 10 days and 20 days for analysis. Weekly body weights were taken, while red blood cell and platelet counts were determined. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and white blood cell differential count were also determined using standard methods. Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkanine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin concentrations were also estimated from serum. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin in groups that received the seed extract while there were significant increases in haematological indices. There was also a significant decrease in body weight of the rats treated with the extract in individual comparisons with the control group on days 10 and 20 of administration. Consumption of Citrullus lanatus seed extract reduces body weight, decreases serum levels of liver biomarkers and increases haematological parameters. Hence, Citrullus lanatus seed is safe for human and might be beneficial effect on health.