Open Access Original Research Article

Bersama abyssinica Fresen. (Melianthaceae): Antifungal Activity on Aflatoxin B1-producing Mold

Kouadio Bene, Adou Koffi Mathieu Kra, Kouadio Fernique Konan, Guédé Noël Zirihi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31695

Aspergillus flavus is the main aflatoxin-producing mold (only group B). In view of the extent of the pathologies caused by these toxins, we have begun a series of research on medicinal plants with the aim of finding new bioactive substances capable of neutralizing the action of these mycotoxins and endowing a safety guaranteeing their taking in The therapeutic treatments of affections related to the production of aflatoxins in general but aflatoxin B1 in particular. An ethnobotanical survey conducted in the Department of Transua (East of Cote d'Ivoire) revealed Bersama abyssinica, medicinal species highly recommended in the treatment of mycoses. After extraction of the active ingredients, the Sabouraud double tube dilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal activities of two extracts of this plant. The aqueous total (TAE) and ethanolic extracts 70% (EE70%) of tested leaves possess an antifungal activity. EE70% is the most active (MIC = 0.781mg/ml and IC50 = 0.08 mg/ml). These results justify the traditional use of Bersama abyssinica in the treatment of mycotic diseases in the Department of Transua. Bersama abyssinica is an alternative in the bio-fight against Aspergillus flavus producing aflatoxin B1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-proliferative Effect of Chickpea Extract on Hela, MCF-7, Saos and Fibroblast Cell Lines

Ladan Barari, Zeinab Abedian, Asadollah Asadi, Fatemeh Elmi, Maryam Mitra Elmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/30637

Background and Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the proliferation inhibitory effects of seed protein extract from chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) on cancer cell lines.

Materials and Methods: The chickpea water, soluble proteins from ammonium sulphate precipitates, was called R1 and R5. The anti-proliferative properties of all fractions were evaluated by MTT assay.  Morphological analysis using fluorescence microscopy was performed to show the ability of the extract to induce cell apoptosis.

Results: MTT assay revealed that the protein extract fractions of R3 and R4 had strong anti-proliferative properties against Hela (cervical cancer cells), MCF-7 (breast cancer cell) and Saos (Sarcoma osteogenic) at all levels of concentration (0, 25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 μg/ml) and they were tested at different times (24, 48, and 72 h). In addition, the data further revealed that the chickpea proteins showed the greatest activity against Hela and had the lowest effect on fibroblast. Conclusion: The results also demonstrated that chickpea proteins can be a source of bio- active components and can also be regarded as an alternative source of a new anticancer drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactive Chemical Constituent Analysis, in vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Whole Plant Methanol Extracts of Ulva lactuca Linn

Vijayalingam Thavasi Alagan, Rajesh Nakulan Valsala, Kalpana Devi Rajesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31818

Aims: To analyse the bioactive chemical constituents and evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of whole plant methanol extracts of Ulva lactuca Linn.

Study Design: Preliminary phytochemical screening, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Ramanathapuram-623503, Department of Botany, A.V.V.M Sri Pushpam college, Poondi, Thanjavur-613503 and K.M.C.H college of pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore-641048. The studies were carried out during August-December 2016.

Methodology: Phytochemical constituents were identified by qualitative and GC-MS analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by disc diffusion technique.

Results: Phytochemical screening of methanol extracts showed positive results for alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids, proteins and negative results for saponins and cardiac glycosides. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 10 compounds in Ulva lactuca methanolic extracts and some of the phytocomponents screened were terpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and aliphatic hydrocarbons and many of them have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer actions. Methanolic plant extract showed significant antioxidant activity under DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assay. In disc diffusion technique among six bacterial species, methanol extract showed potent activity against three Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi). The extracts were more potent towards fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus) and no activity reported in Candida albicans.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of whole plant of U. lactuca can be used as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Chemical Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Essential Oil of Petiveria alliacea L.

Aderoju A. Oluwa, Opeyemi N. Avoseh, O. Omikorede, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Oladipupo A. Lawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31331

Aims: To study and report the chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of Petiveria alliacea L (Phytolaccaceae) from Nigeria.

Study Design: The study involves the distillation of essential oil from the leaf of P. alliacea, characterization of the chemical constituents of the essential oil and the evaluation of its anti-inflammatory potential.

Place and Duration of Study: Leaves of P. alliacea were collected at Ijede, Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria, in June 2016. Male Wistar rats were obtained and accommodated at the animal facility of Biochemistry Department Lagos state University, Ojo, Nigeria. The experiment lasted till October 2016.

Methodology: Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of air-dried and pulverized leaves of P. alliacea. The distilled colourless oil was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined on fresh egg albumins over 4 h by measurement of rat paw edema according to established procedure.

Results: Eleven compounds representing 99.1% of the oil content were identified in the essential oil of P. alliacea. The main constituents were phytol (56.1%), citronellol (16.0%) and (Z, Z)-α-farnesol (14.6%). In the egg albumin-induced edema, essential oils of P. alliacea induced time dependent in paw edema. The anti-inflammatory activity was non-significant (P= .05) from the 1st h to the 3rd h after egg albumin injection at 1 mL of 2% dose level while the maximum inhibition (P < .001) was observed after 4 h. At this hour, the inhibition was more pronounced than Diclofenac sodium injection.

Conclusion: The chemical constituents of P. alliacea essential oil were found to differ from previous studies. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of P. alliacea may provide further information on the biological uses of P. alliacea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Microbiological Application of Ciprofloxacin Loaded in Natural Rubber Latex Membranes

B. C. Garms, F. A. Borges, R. E. Santos, K. Nigoghossian, M. C. R. Miranda, I. U. Miranda, P. Daltro, S. L. Scarpari, R. J. Giagio, N. R. Barros, K. M. Alarcon, B. C. Drago, J. L. P. Gemeinder, B. H. Oliveira, V. M. G. Nascimento, A. V. Loffredo, R. D. Herculano

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2017/31614

Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis presents interesting characteristics in biomedical research due to its ability to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular adhesion and formation of extracellular matrix. A broad spectrum antibacterial agent used in skin infection is Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP). It is a fluoroquinolone employed to treat different bacterial infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative microorganism. The aim of the present study is to promove the CIP incorporation on the natural material due to develop a biomaterial which could accelerate tissue repair and control wounds infection. The biomaterial characterization was made through several technics. The compound presence on the membrane was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy technique, which shown crystals merged on the material surface. Through X-Ray Powder Diffraction technic was possible to notice the absence of crystallinity (amorphous structure) in the drug-loaded NRL membrane indicating that the drug is molecularly dispersed within the NRL. Besides that, there are no molecular interaction between drug and NRL showed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy neither Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the NRL pyrolysis profile when the drug was added, indicating weak interaction between both compounds, as presented by Derivative Thermogravimetric Analysis assay. Comparing the mechanical properties, both samples (with and without CIP) had a similar behavior. Thus, is possible to presume the material preserved enough elasticity to medical application. Furthermore, antimicrobial assay proved that CIP activity was preserved after its incorporation to the NRL. It allows us to conclude that the material has potential application in infected wound treatment.