Open Access Case Study

Tracheostomy and Innominate Artery Bleeding: A Late Complication

Bilge Karsli, Nurten Kayacan, Ulku Karatas Ince, Huseyin Mutlu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31700

Tracheostomised patients are at risk of several complications. The complications of tracheostomy include bleeding, stenosis, pneumothorax, tracheo-arterial fistulas and malacia. In article described the case of severe complication of tracheostomy.

We report a patient who suffered life-threatening hemorrhage from an innominate artery laceration following an elective surgical tracheostomy procedure.

Open Access Minireview Article

GCMS Analysis of Leaf and Salt Stress Callus of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

A. Vanitha, K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai, Y. Sharmila Juliet, R. Prabakaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/30425

In the present study, the leaf explant cultured on a MS medium supplemented with BAP (4.44 μM) + NAA (0.98 μM) had the ability to induce more amount of green and friable callus. The 40 days old best grown callus was sub cultured on the combination of various concentrations of BAP (2.22, 4.44, 6.66, 8.88 and 11.1μM) along with same concentrations of NAA (0.98 μM) with different concentrations of NaCl (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM). The highest percentage of callus was observed on MS + BAP (4.44 μM) + NAA (0.98 μM) + NaCl 20 mM with the percentage of 62.33±1.35. The shoot induction was observed on the same media composition with 95% response. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanol and methanol extracts of salt callus showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, tannins/ phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides and reducing sugar. GCMS analysis revealed the presence of 27 compounds in the ethanolic extract of S. melongena. Among that there are seven major peaks which indicating the presence of seven major phytochemical constituents. From the twenty seven compounds identified, the most prevailing compounds were, Tetracontane (12.64%), Lupeol (12.44%), N-Tetratetracontane (11.60%), Tetrapentacontane (11.05%) Dotriacontane (10.90%), n-Hexatriacontane (9.18%) and Eicosane (5.26%).  Twenty five compounds were identified through GCMS analysis of methanolic salt callus extracts of S. melongena. The most prevailing compounds were 1-Heptacosanol (54.39%), Ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3-ol (8.37%), Tetracosane (5.26%), Tetratetracontane (4.49%) and Beta Carotene (4.25%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum CA19–9 Levels and Pancreatic Beta Cell Destruction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Mohammad Mansour Saleh Saif, Waddaah M. Al-Asbahy, Abdulkawi Ali Al-Fakih, Adeeb Mohammed Albadani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/30808

Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9) is a tumor–associated antigen, which is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer but is also a marker of pancreatic tissue damage that might be caused by diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CA19–9 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison with age– and gender matched control subjects. The study was carried out on 90 patients having T2DM and 90 subjects as control group, with respect to diabetes duration and estimation of lipase, triacylglycerol(TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and serum CA 19–9 levels. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in order to differenciate  subjects having abdominal malignancy either from diabetic or control groups. The mean values of CA 19–9 levels were 24.3±12.3 and 6.5±3.3 U/ml for diabetic patients and control group, respectively (< 0.001). It is proposed that a higher cutoff value of CA 19–9 than 57.14 U/ml may be used to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatic disease in diabetics. In addition, subtle elevations of CA 19–9 in diabetics may be considered as indicator of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activities and HPLC-DAD Based Phenolic Content Determination of Bauhinia scandens

Md. Selim Hossain, Sarzil Azad Niloy, Afroza Hosen, Md. Anzam Ul Islam, Zahirul Islam, Sajan Das, Md. Asif Hassan, A. F. M. Mahmudul Islam, Md. Sohel Rana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31817

Aim of Study: Bauhinia scandens L. (Leguminosae) is a valuable plant used for various ailments. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant potential and quantification of selected bioactive plant polyphenol compounds of the ethanolic extracts of Bauhinias scandens (EEBS).

Study Design: Assessment of antioxidant activities and HPLC-DAD based phenolic contents analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between March 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: DPPH free radical scavenging, total phenolic and total flavonoid content assay were used to evaluate in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD.

Results: EEBS showed good free radical scavenging effects with IC50 13.5 µg/ml whereas for standard ascorbic acid, IC50 value was 8.25 µg/ml. For EEBS, total phenolic content was 47.33 ±0.01 mg GAE/gram of dry extract while total flavonoid content was 6.59 ±0.04 mg QE/g dry extract. The experimental results indicated that EEBS contained a high concentration of gallic acid, ellagic acid and rosmarinic acid (215.39, 72.24 & 50.96 mg/100 g of dry extract, respectively). Vanillin was also detected at moderate concentration in EEBS (39.85 mg/100 g of dry extract). Vanillic acid and syringic acid were also detected at lower concentration (12.34 & 17.15 mg/100 g of dry extract, respectively).

Conclusion: Experimental results suggest that ethanolic extracts of Bauhinias scandens contain high amount of phenolic constituents which could be responsible for the biological activities of this plant extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method Development and Validation for the Process Related Impurities of Nebivolol and Structural Characterization of Its Forced Degradation Products by LC-MS/MS

Prasad Kancherla, Pallavi Alegete, Srinivas Keesari, Bhavyasri Khagga, Sridhar Siddiraju, Mukkanti Khagga, Parthasarathi Das

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/31354

The present study reports the development and validation of a stability-indicating reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of nebivolol (NEB) in the presence of its process related impurities in bulk drugs and also demonstrates the structural characterization of forced degradation products (DP) of nebivolol by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forced decomposition study of nebivolol was carried out and studied under acidic, basic, aqueous, oxidative, photolytic and thermal conditions according to the ICH guidelines. Nebivolol was found to be stable under photolytic, thermal and aqueous conditions applied in our study. However, nebivolol degradation was observed under basic and acidic conditions. Successful chromatographic separation of the drug and its process related impurities and degradation products were achieved on a waters acquity BEHC18 stationary phase (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7µm) with a gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min-1. Detection of analytes was carried out using a PDA detector with its wavelength set at 222 nm. The developed UPLC method was validated for all validation parameters according to the ICH guidelines. The degradation products were characterized by LC-MS/MS study and the most possible degradation and fragmentation pathways were proposed.