Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Pennisetum glaucum Crude Extracts and Pre-purified Fractions against Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms

Hellen M. Ndiku, Peter G. Mwitari, Beatrice Irungu, Chrispus Mutuku Ngule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/28434

Background: Penisetum glaucum is one of the earliest indigenous food crops in East Africa. Pearl millet contains numerous phytocompounds. Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from pearl millet and evaluation of their bioactivity is necessary. These will act as “markers” for pharmacological quality, increasing the acceptability of pearl millet. The current study was therefore undertaken to provide thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile using different solvent systems and pre-purified fractions.

Methods: Maceration and sequential extraction methods were used. Thin layer chromatography and column chromatography techniques were used in extracts purification. The antibacterial activity of the crude extracts and pre-purified fractions was determined using well diffusion method.

Results: Pearl milletethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts gave good activity as compared to other tested crude extracts. Petroleum ether inhibited Serratia liquefaciens the most with an average inhibition zone of 10.66±0.882 while ethyl acetate inhibited Bacillus cereus (12.333±0.577). Methanol extract inhibited the growth of only E. coli. Fraction 10 which was obtained from the petroleum ether extract inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested. Gentamicin which was used as the positive control had significantly higher inhibition zones against all the selected microorganisms as compared to the plant test samples (p<0.001). DMSO which was used as the negative control did not inhibit the growth of any of the selected microorganisms.

Conclusion: The results obtained in the current investigation of P. glaucum show that the cereal contains secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological activities. The antibacterial activity observed in this study could be a scientific justification of the plants potency in prevention and management of gastrointestinal infections due to its ability to inhibit the growth of E. coli. A lot has been done on the primary metabolites of pearl millet ascertaining its richness in minerals, vitamins and primary nutritional molecules. It is therefore necessary to give attention to the secondary metabolites concentration and their pharmacological importance. Further purification, isolation, identification and characterization of pearl millet bioactive compounds remain to be our priority in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Infective Dose of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) When Injected Intraperitoneally in Sprague Dawley Rats

Satish Jankie, Johnson Jenelle, Rod Suepaul, Lexley Pinto Pereira, Patrick Akpaka, Amusa Sarafadeen Adebayo, Gopalkrishna Pillai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29932

Objective: To determine the infective dose of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) in Sprague Dawley rats, when the inoculum is injected via the intraperitoneal route.

Design and Methods: In interest of animal welfare and to reduce the number of animals used, we utilized the “up-down procedure” for dose determination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.Animals were grouped in fours, injected IP with inoculums of known concentration of a single organism and observed for 10 days. Clinical signs such as lethargy, increased respiration, porphyrin staining was recorded. Gross necropsy was performed ten (10) days post infection. Only one infective dose was done at a time and depending on the outcome, the size of inoculum was adjusted for the next step in the experimental infectious process.

Results: Doses of inoculum was carefully titrated and the highest tolerable dose for each organism was determined. These doses allowed for survival of the animals and gave clinical signs, which mimicked the scenario in a human population. Symptoms of infection included lethargy, ruffled fur, porphyrin staining, dehydration and hunched back. At necropsy at 10 days post infection, common indicators of infection observed were ascites, abscesses on the intestinal wall, kidneys, liver and spleen. There were also fibrin tags, rounded livers, enlarged spleen and increased pericardial effusion was prominent in the S. aureusinfected group.

Conclusions: The infective doses were determined based on clinical signs, survival and post mortem changes. The doses determined for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) was 1.75 X 1010 cfu/ml and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) was 3.0 X 108cfu/ml. These doses would be useful in infective animal studies to determine the efficacy of antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Fruit Pulp Extracts of Azanza garckeana (F. Hoffm.) Exell & Hillc. and Isolation of One of its Active Principles, Betulinic Acid

Y. J. Dikko, M. E. Khan, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. V. Anyam, U. A. Linus

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/30152

Aims: To perform anti-microbial activity guided isolation and to characterize compound(s) from fruit pulp (extracts) of Azanza garckeana.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, and University of Strathclyde in Scotland, United kingdom, from October 2015 to September 2016.

Methodology: Crude extracts were screened for phytochemical components. In vitro Anti-microbial assay was performed using Agar Diffusion Method and Broth Dilution Method. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography and gel filtration (Sephadex LH20) were used for the isolation of medicinal principles. Characterization of the isolated compound was carried out using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Results: Extracts contained steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars and tannins. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest diameter of zones of inhibition (27 mm). Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had the same Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.25 mg/ml against MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei but for Escherichia coli which had Minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.625 mg/ml for ethyl acetate extract. Ethyl acetate extract had the best minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (2.5 mg/ml) on pathogens. It was determined from Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrum that the isolated compound contained features conclusively characteristic of Betulinic acid.

Conclusion: Fruit extracts of Azanza garckeana show promising in vitro anti-microbial activity. This is the first report of isolation and characterization of betulinic acid from fruits of this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Alchornea laxiflora Methanolic Leaf Extract on CCL4-induced Hepatotoxicity and Reproductive Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

E. S. Uhunmwangho, N. O. Rasaq, O. Ojemekele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29807

Background: Alchornea laxiflora is a medicinal plant with immense health benefits.

Aim: To verify the protective effects of methanol extract of Alchornea laxiflora (MEAL) leaf on hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity induced by CCl4.

Settings and Design: Extraction and administration of Bioactive extract.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo City, Ondo State, P.M.B 536. Between November 2015 - July 2016.

Materials and Methods: Thirty five Albino Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each, group 1 animals which served as positive control, received normal saline, group 2 animals which served as negative control, received 1 ml/kg body weight of CCl4 only for a day while groups 3-7 received 0.1, 0.5, 1.0,10.0 and 50 mg/kg body weight of methanol extract Alchornea laxiflora (MEAL) leaf respectively for seven days after receiving a single dosage CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) for a day. Activities of Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed to verify the effects of the plant extract on the liver while percentage sperm  motility and sperm morphology was assayed to check the effects of the plant extract on reproductive system/organs.

Statistical Analysis: The data were analysed by SPSS (version 2.1).

Result and Conclusion: Graded dosage (0.1-50 mg/kg bodyweight) of methanol extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf significantly (p≤0.05) reversed the toxic effects of CCl4 on the liver and reproductive organs of wistar rats in a dose dependent manner as compared to group 2 animals. This may be due to the secondary metabolites content of Alchornea laxiflora, which have been shown to have profound antioxidant potentials. It could be deduced that Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract can reverse hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity and by extension cure infertility in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activity Guided Fractionation of Ethanol Extract of Meriandra bengalensis against Anopheles Mosquito Larvae

Atul Kaushik, Abel Fekadu Tesfa, Mengisteab Tesfaldet Wolday

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29878

Aim: To prevent proliferation of mosquito borne diseases, to improve quality of life, mosquito control is essential. Research was aimed to find alternative eco-friendly and bio-degradable strategies in mosquito control at the larvae stage. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the various column fractions of the ethanol extract of leaves of Meriandra bengalensis against late instar larva.

Methods: Dried and powdered leaves of Meriandra bengalensis were extracted with hexane and ethanol by continuous refluxing. Extracts were filtered and concentrated on rotary evaporator. Column chromatography was used to partially purify the ethanol extract using Alumina. Various polar fractions; 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and15% chloroform in petroleum ether and 10% methanol in chloroform were used to elute the active fractions. Larvicidal activity of various fractions at the 5 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml were recorded over 24 hour period. Larvae of Anopheles gambie were used for this study.

Results: All fractions showed very high larvicidal potential, Difference in larvicidal activity was observed with in the first 4 hours but later all fractions had a 100% mortality rate at both concentrations. At 5 mg/ml and 2.5mg/ml the strongest larvicidal activity was shown by the chloroform: pet ether (6%) which was equally active as the standard treatment. In the negative control all larvae were active and motile.

Conclusion: The findings of present study revealed that the column fractions of Meriandra bengalensiscontain effective larvicidal agents. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s) of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of the Genus Odontonema (Acanthaceae)

Lokadi Pierre Luhata, Namboole Moses Munkombwe, Peter Mubanga Cheuka, Harrison Sikanyika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/29877

Odontonema is a group of tropical plant species used in folklore medicine because of its wide range of pharmacological properties. These plants are known to be anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-viral, hepatoprotective, sedative and anti-oxidant. Furthermore, some species have been reported to induce child birth and trigger bronchodilatation. Since this group of plants is associated with a plethora of pharmacological properties, a review of reported medicinally-relevant investigations is warranted. Herein, we review the ethnopharmacology, bioactivity reports, and phytochemistry of the plant species belonging to the genus Odontonema. To compile this review, an extensive literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scielo web sites, updated to May 2015. Although there are a number of pharmacological and ethnopharmacological reports on the four species of Odontonema covered in this review, phytochemical profiling of this group of plants is quiet limited. Odontonema strictium was found to be the most phytochemically profiled showing the presence of phytosterols and flavonoids.

Open Access Review Article

Self-medication; An Emerging Trend

Asim Mehmood, Atta Ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaman, Javed Iqbal, Syed Saeed Ul Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/30333

Self-medication involves the use of medicinal products by the individuals to treat self-recognized diseases or symptoms or the intermittent or continuous use of medication prescribed by a physician for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Self-medication also involves acquiring medicines without a prescription or resubmitting old prescriptions to purchase medicines, sharing medicines with relatives or members of one’s social circle or using left over medication or failing to comply with the professional prescription, either by prolonging it or interrupting it too early or decreasing or increasing the originally prescribed dose. It is practiced significantly worldwide, even though its type, extent and reasons for its practice may vary. No data are available on the current status of self-medication practices among health sciences. It is a worldwide sensation and probable contributor to antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics. The adversative results of such practices should always be highlighted to the public and steps to restrain it. Extensive irrational use of antibiotics without medical direction may result in bigger possibility of unsuitable, improper, or unwarranted therapy, false finding, and delays in proper treatment, pathogen resistance and amplified morbidity. This review focused on the self‑medication of various drugs through internet. The purpose of this review is to provide awareness to the readers about the hazardous and worse consequences of the drug misuse through self-medication. Various research and review articles are reviewed for collection of information about self-medication.