Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Obesity and Coronary Heart Disease Risk among Saudi Subjects at Madinah Region

Sherif Y. Saad, Mohamed M. M. Abdel-Latif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26382

Purpose: To characterize the association between major cardiovascular diseases risk among Saudis and their body mass index (BMI).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (April to June 2015) to investigate the expected 10 years risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among Saudi subjects (age range 20-70 years) using Framingham Risk Score (FRS) with respect to their BMI (analyzed October 2015).

Results: In the present study there was a significant association between the 10 years risk of developing CVD and BMI. The results revealed an increase in BMI contributing to significant increase in the 10 years risk of CVD among males. The overall distribution of FRS among males regardless the BMI category as a percentage of the total male subjects revealed that males were at low, medium and high CVD risk of 71.4%, 14.27% and 14.3%, respectively. However, female subjects showed 91.5%, 4.8% and 3.6% at low, medium and high FRS, respectively. In addition, significant increases in the Odd ratio amounting to 4.58 and 5.24 among intermediate and high risk males in comparison with female ones, respectively.

Conclusions: BMI strongly associated with the expected 10 years FRS for CVD. Moreover, there was gender specific susceptablity for CVD risk among Saudi males compared to female ones. Socioeconomic, behavioral, awareness about healthy choices and genetic characteristics of obesity should be taken in consideration since extrapolating other population's studies to Saudi one might be misleading.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiocochemical Standardization and Formulation Development of Poly-herbal Tablet for Diabetes

Pulak Majumder, M. Paridhavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26599

Diabetes is one of the leading health problems in the current world population. Very near future India will be the capital of Diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objective: The objective of this present study was to develop and evaluate polyherbal tablet for diabetes. Developing herbal formulations for oral usages is still a challenge in modern pharmaceutical aspects and the tablet formulation presents many technical problems to the industrial pharmacist.

Methods: Potential anti-diabetic herbs were used for developing tablets. Phytochemical parameters for standardization of plants were, according to standard methods and aqueous extract of the whole plant of Cassia auriculata, Cinnamomum tamala, Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera indica and Trichosanthes dioica were used in the formulations. Pre-formulations studies were performed for powder blends. Drug excipients compatibility and microbiological limits were also evaluated.

Results: All the tablets were prepared by using hand rotating single punch tablet punching machine and were evaluated for various tablet compression parameters, i.e. tab densities, bulk densities, an angle of repose, general appearance, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, and disintegration. All formulations are found to be nil or under the standard limit.

Conclusion: The laboratory scale preparation of poly-herbal tablet may lead to a new potent and stable oral dosage formulations for DM and enlighten the area of synergistic action of herbs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemistry and Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Tithonia diversifolia and Olea africana

Kemboi Douglas, Janet Jeruto

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26566

In an increasing search of new antimicrobial agent to cope with the microbial resistance to antibiotics, scientists are searching from different sources including plants. Plants extracts of the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia and Olea africana were obtained using different solvents. In-vitro antibacterial activity of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Tithonia diversifolia and Olea africana were evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, using micro-broth diffusion method. Zones of inhibition at different concentrations were recorded in millimeters. Growth of test pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) were inhibited by dichloromethane leaf extract of T. diversifolia at higher concentration of 25 mg/mL (18 mm zone of inhibition), followed by inhibition of 14 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). E. coli was found to be least sensitive to different plants extracts of T. diversifolia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to methanol extracts of the leaves of O. africana at a concentration of 25 mg/mL (18 mm zone of inhibition) followed by E. coli with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm. Staphylococcus aureus growth was inhibited by ethyl acetate extracts of O. africanawith a zone of inhibition of 19.20 mm. Results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, saponins, phenols and flavanoids in dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of T. diversifolia, While alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and flavones were screened in O. africana extracts. The activity of the crude extract was found to be concentration dependent on all the organisms tested. The occurrence of these phytochemicals in the selected plants of T. diversifolia and O. africana may justify their wide range usage in traditional medicine. However, other genera of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi species should be tested in order to ascertain the broad spectrum activity of the crude extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Bridelia micrantha and Grewia plagiophylla Leaf Extracts

Kemboi Douglas, Alex Gitonga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27270

Escalation in occurrences of resistant microorganisms especially to synthetic drugs, has obliged the need to search for new bioactive compounds having natural origin. Bridelia micrantha and Grewia plagiophylla are medicinal plants whose roots, bark and leaves have been used by traditional herbalists to treat various diseases, but the antibacterial activity of the Kenyan ecotype has not been determined. Among the diseases treated by extracts of these plant parts are bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, leprosy etc. Use of herbal medicine has been with disbelief and fear since people are not sure of their effect. This reserach sought to determine the antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of Bridelia micrantha and Grewia plagiophylla. The phytochemicals present in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts was also determined. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus were used as the test organisms. Extraction of crude extracts was done by cold extraction. Test organisms were inoculated in Muller Hilton media and disks impregnated with sample placed on the surface of the media. The diameter of zone of inhibition was measured in mm for every treatment using a ruler. The methanol and ethyl acetate leaf extracts from the test plant had considerable antibacterial effects on S. aureus. Most of the extracts tested positive for tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Alkaloids were absent in all the plants extracts. All the plant extracts showed no inhibition against E. coli, Methanol extract of Bridelia micrantha and, Grewia plagiophylla exhibited a zone of inhibition of 19 mm and 20 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi respectively. Ethanol extracts was inactive against all test organisms at various concentrations. Antibacterial activity difference was based on type of solvent used for extraction. The results gives scientific validity for the use of the plant as a medicine source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacokinetics of Nevirapine in HIV Infected Children from Resource Limited Settings Using Fixed Dose Anti-retroviral Combinations

Tapiwa E. Manyarara, S. Khoza, C. C. Maponga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27392

Introduction: The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in paediatric populations are important to consider for those receiving anti-retroviral treatment in resource limited settings. High rate of adherence is required to achieve therapeutic success with good record keeping system for monitoring and follow-ups.

Discussion: Children up to 2 years old have a higher rate of elimination for nevirapine compared to adult population and older children. Elimination rate in children less than 8 years are about twice those in adults. Prescriptions for the drug based on body surface area have been found to be too complex for use in resource limited settings and calculations based on weight bands are used. Though weight bands make drug administration easier the lower weight bands are likely to receive sub therapeutic doses when drug is administered especially when adult fixed dose combinations are used. Chewable paediatric tablets offer better pharmacokinetic profile compared to liquids or oral tablets, however availability of such dosage forms remains low. Solid dosage forms tend to give better nevirapine exposure when taken whole and not broken into halves or quarters as is the case in resource limited settings. Absorption and bioavailability of nevirapine may be affected by nutritional status when they is changes in fat/lean body mass ratio and physiological function due to malnutrition.

Conclusion: Effective antiretroviral treatment is limited by low availability of formulations for nevirapine only or fixed dose combinations for use in paediatric populations. Paediatric formulations are more accurate in achieving trough concentrations and sufficient nevirapine exposure. Adult tablets usually have to be broken in halves or quarters and this can affect the bioavailability of nevirapine and lead to sub therapeutic concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicians Sociodemographics and Knowledge, Awareness, Attitude and Practice towards Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions: An Association Study in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

Tahani Mohammed Ali Bakhsh, Mohammad Saeed Al-Ghamdi, Saleh A. Bawazir, Rajaa Mohammad Al-Raddadi, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/27462

Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are considered as one of the most important contributors to significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Currently, ADRs remain a major challenge for healthcare providers, patients, drug industry, and regulators.

Objective: To determine associations of hospital physicians (HPs) demographics and ADRs variables with their knowledge, awareness, attitude and practice (KAAP), and encountering and reporting ADRs in three general hospitals of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A7-item self-administered ADR questionnaire was developed and applied in this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire covered seven domains: sociodemographic, the awareness of ADRs program, knowledge about ADR reporting, physicians’ attitude towards ADR, practice of ADR reporting, motivators of and barriers against ADRs reporting, and self-perception and intention to report ADRs. From October 2012 to September 2013, randomly selected hospital physicians (HPs) participated in the analytical study.

Results: A total of 337 HPs participated in the study, and the response rate was 87.5%. This study revealed a number of significant associations of physicians’ demographic and ADR practice characteristics and self perceptions with KAAP of ADRs and detected and reported ADRs. Physicians were aware of ADRs but their knowledge and attitude was not significantly associated with ever having detected or reported ADRs.

Conclusion: Certain demographics and ADR practice were significantly associated with ADR KAAP scores. The HPs in general hospitals demonstrated low level of knowledge and attitude regarding ADRs reporting, compared to awareness. For improving patient safety and quality of health care advanced education and training in attitude and practice of ADRs reporting, targeting hospital physicians is needed urgently. Further research need to be conducted on several aspects of ADRs in all hospitals of Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Review Article

Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub- Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry, Medicinal and Nutritional Values- A Review

Simeon K. Adesina, Ezekiel O. Iwalewa, Imoh I. Johnny

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26554

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) is a well-known tree growing widely in forest zones all over West Africa. It is used in wound-healing, diabetes mellitus, asthma, hypertension, epilepsy, convulsions, leprosy, mental illness, inflammation, arthritis and rheumatoid pain, schistosomiasis control, as a general tonic and as a flavourer/spice.

Aim of this Review: The present review article which is in three parts gives an update on the chemistry, nutritional and medicinal values of its fruit, extracts and isolated compounds. It gives the opportunity to highlight the various ethnopharmacological uses as well as the pharmacological findings on T. tetrapteraand discuss them.

Findings: T. tetraptera was reported to contain various biologically-active compounds such as 7-Hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin- an anticonvulsant and hypotensive, hentriacontane-an anti-inflammatory agent, N-acetylglycosides of oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid and 27-hydroxyolean-12(13)-en-28-oic acid-as molluscicidal saponins, echinocystic acid-3-O sodium sulphate, chalcones-butein and isoliquiritigenin and the flavanone-naringenin-strong antioxidants, fatty acids-with a high level of omega-3 and omega-6 acids, propanoids, amino acids-as bioactive and antioxidant constituents and structurally-related compounds. The extracts and some of the isolated compounds showed sedative, hypotensive, molluscicidal, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, contraceptive, analgesic, hypoglycaemic, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antimalarial, muscle-relaxant, anticonvulsant, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects in experimental animals. Nutritional assessments and phytochemical analyses of the fruit revealed the composition of mineral content, composition of essential oil, fatty acid profile, tannin content, crude protein content and toxic constituents which showed the nutritional importance of the fruit.

Conclusion: It is now known that T. tetraptera remains a rich source of extracts and chemical compounds that can benefit man in medicine and food; this justifies its use to spice dishes and for medicinal purposes.