Open Access Case Study

Prevention of Postdural Puncture Headache Following Accidental Dural Puncture: Two Cases Report and Mini Literature Review

Nurten Kayacan, Bilge Karslı, Celal Akgün

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25569

38 and 49 years old two women were admitted for total abdominal hysterectomy. Both patiens had no history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arrhytmia, myocardial ischemia, hyperkalemia, or local anaesthetic allergy. Also, there was no pathological finding in the preoperative laboratory evaluation. Initially, we planned combined spinal epidural anaesthesia (CSE) but because of accidental dural puncture (ADP), 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% was injected into subarachnoid space through epidural needle for spinal anaesthesia. Later, the epidural needle was withdrawn into epidural space and a 20-gauge epidural catheter was easily placed into epidural space. At the end of the surgery, 10 ml of saline with 3 mg morphine was injected through epidural catheter and then continuous infusion of 10 ml.h-1 saline was admitted via epidural catheter during 24 hours postoperatively. A second injection of 3 mg morphine in 10 ml saline  was repeated on the postoperative 24 h immediately before removal of the catheter. No patient need additional analgesic treatment and no adverse effect were observed in our two cases because of epidural morphine utilization.

Following ADP, leaving the catheter in the epidural space and the administration of morphine injection with continuous saline infusion via epidural catheter may be an alternative to reduce the post dural puncture headache (PDPH).

Open Access Minireview Article

Fungal Metabolites and Leishmaniasis: A Review

Nighat Fatima, Syed Aun Muhammad, Amara Mumtaz, Hina Tariq, Irum Shahzadi, Muhammad Soaib Said, Muhammad Dawood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26094

Among the most neglected tropical diseases in the world, one is leishmaniasis, which is caused by parasites that belongs to protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis can be controlled profoundly by using chemotherapeutic agents which includes pentavalent antimonials, paromomycin, pentamidine, amphotericin B and miltefosine, as it depends greatly on it. The only oral drug used with high cure rate is miltefosine used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis but its observed susceptibility decrease in countries like India where it is extensively used. Hence, the development of novel antileishmanial agents with good potency and better therapeutic profile is very necessary. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-parasitic compounds, biosynthesized by fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Albumin Glycation at Different Stages by Four Anti-diabetic Plant Extracts Correlates with Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in vitro

Alireza Pouyandeh Ravan, Gholamreza Shafiei, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Ali Azizi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Farjam Goudarzi, Mohammad Reza Safari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25898

Aims: Both glycation and oxidative stress play a critical role in the incidence of diabetic complications. Plants with antioxidative and antiglycative properties may attenuate such pathological conditions. The aim of this study is comparing the antiglycative and antioxidative effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos, Plantago ovata, Securigera securidaca and Rhus coriaria on albumin glycation for the first time.

Methodology: Antiglycative property of methanolic extract (75%) of these plants was evaluated by co-incubation of extracts with bovine serum albumin and glucose. Various stages were assessed by measuring different markers of glycation (fructosamine, protein carbonyls and amyloid cross-β structure aggregation). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant capacity of extracts were determined. Finally, the correlations between antiglycation property, total phenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of extracts were evaluated.

Results: The results demonstrated that the extracts exert inhibitory effects on various stages of glycation and V. arctostaphylos showed maximum attenuating effect. A significant correlation was found between antiglycation and antioxidant properties of extracts with total phenolic and flavonoid content. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of extracts correlated with their antiglycation properties.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that antioxidative and antiglycative activities of extracts may be related to their phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings support the viewpoint that the medicinal plants with anti-diabetic properties may be beneficial resources for inhibition of glycation and oxidative stress in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Meloxicam Niosomal Gel Formulations for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Ahmad Usama, Gihan Fetih, Tahani El-Faham

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26985

Niosomes have been reported as a possible approach to improve low skin permeation shown by conventional vehicles. In this study, a noisome-based delivery system of meloxicam (MX) was developed and characterized for in vitro performance.

Niosomes were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method (REV) using different non ionic surfactants and cholesterol in different molar ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1,1: 2 and 1:3) and different drug loading (5, 10 and 15 mg). The used surfactants included Tweens (20, 40 and 80), Brij (35 and 58) and Myrj 52. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, and in-vitro release. Accordingly, selected systems were evaluated for vesicle size, and formulated into different hydrogel bases (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and sodium alginate). In-vitro drug release from the different formulations was studied over a period of 8 hr. Effect of formulation additives on drug release was also investigated. The anti-inflammatory activity of the selected formulations was evaluated by the paw edema test.

Results showed high encapsulation efficiency which ranged from about 81.93% to 99.23%. The highest entrapment efficiency was obtained with 1:1 surfactant: cholesterol ratio and 15 mg drug loading, so niosomes prepared by this ratio were selected for further studies. Particle size ranged from 4.047 to 12.334 µm for different niosomal systems. In vitro drug release from different gel formulations containing 0.3% MX was compared to that from the same formulations containing 0.3% niosomally entrapped drug. In all formulations the drug release was more sustained in case of niosomally entrapped drug. Incorporation of glycerol and propylene glycol as formulation additives into gel formulations markedly enhanced the drug release, but the release from gels containing niosomally entrapped drug was still delayed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Diflunisal and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using Chemometric Methods

Ibrahim H. I. Habib, Mohamed Rizk, Dalia Mohamed, Shereen Mowaka, Rasha Th. El-Eryan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26586

Aims: Is the simultaneous determination of Diflunisal and Diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations.

Study Design: Four spectrophotometric methods (Classical Least Squares, Iterative Target Transformation Factor Analysis, Principal Component Regression and Partial Least Squares) will be described and evaluated for the simultaneous determination of the two drugs. In these techniques, the concentration data matrix was prepared according to the full factorial experimental design of three levels and two components in mixtures.

Place and Duration of Study: Microanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, between January 2016 and Marsh 2016.

Methodology: Using 2.5 mM NaOH solution as solvent, the corresponding absorbance data matrix was measured over the wavelength range of 220 – 400 nm with the intervals of Δλ= 1 nm, then regression was obtained by using the absorbance data matrix and the concentration data matrix for the prediction of the unknown concentrations of Diflunisal and Diclofenac sodium in their mixture. The procedure did not require any chemical separation step or prior graphical treatment of the overlapped spectra.

Results: The calibration range was found linear over 2.5 – 20 μg/mL for Diflunisal and Diclofenac sodium through the Partial Least Squares method.

Conclusion: The Partial Least Squares method was selected and validated on both authentic mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. The accuracy and precision of the methods were assessed and compared with each other.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Derivative Spectrophotometer for Analysis of Chloroquine Phosphate Dosage Forms

Siham Abdallah, E. E. Kamal, M. E. M. Hagga, Ishraqa Mohamed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23913

Afirst derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of chloroquine phosphate in formulations.

The aim of the present work is to develop and optimize a derivative spectrophotometric method for the analysis of chloroquine phosphate substance and to study of the expected interference of pharmaceutical excipent used in chloroquine phosphate formulations on the developed method,  to employ the developed method for analysis of chloroquine phosphate in pharmaceutical dosage forms, and to compare between the developed method and the official methods for analysis of chloroquine phosphate formulations.

The zero order absorption and first derivative spectra were measured for chloroquine phosphate working standard and formulation using UV spectrophotometer.

The derivative procedure was based on the linear relationship between the concentration of chloroquine phosphate and first order derivative amplitude at 225 nm, 239 nm, 260 nm, and 349 nm. The first derivative spectra were developed between 200 nm- 400 nm. The developed method was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the official non-aqueous titration methods (BP and USP).

The results obtained showed good linearity and selectivity in the concentration range 2.5 -50 µg/ml.

The developed method was successfully applied in the quantitative assay of commercial tablets, injections and syrup formulations.

The method was simple, rapid and suitable for quality control application.

Open Access Review Article

Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach.: A Review of the Ethno-medical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations

Newman Osafo, Yaw Duah Boakye

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26689

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Glyphaea brevis (spreng) Monach. belongs to the family Tiliaceae. Traditionally it is used in Africa and South America to treat various disease conditions of man including fevers, gonorrhea, dysentery, stomach troubles, lung troubles, parasitic infections, convulsions and constipation. In recent years, it has come under the lime light of researchers in various parts of the world due to its broad ethno-medicinal uses. The aim of this review is to highlight the folkloric significance, phytochemical composition and reported pharmacological activities of G. brevis.

Materials and Methods: Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica database and PubMed, were the electronic databases used to search for and filter published research on Glyphaea brevis.

Results: The review captures significant data from published literature on the ethno-botanical uses of G. brevis which spans from 1985 to 2014. G. brevis crude extracts and phytochemicals showed a wide spectrum of activity including anti-infective, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-proliferative, hypocholestrolaemic activity, weight control and blood glucose control activity, glycosidase inhibiting activity and hepatoprotective effect. However, G. brevis is reported to be toxic in reproductive studies.

Conclusion: On the bases of some of these reported biological activities of G. brevis, crude extracts and phytochemicals from the plant will require further studies to ascertain the mechanisms of action, potential product development and possible future clinical trials to serve as alternative therapy.