Open Access Short Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Acteoside in Batankor Syrup and Plantago lanceolata L. Collected from Different Areas of Rwanda by HPLC and UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Methods

Goretti M. Ingabire, Andre Ndagijimana, Marie Jeanne Mukazayire, George Nyombaire, Justin N. Kabera

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25437

A range of biological activities has been found from Plantago lanceolata L. extracts showing anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities. It is in this perspective that the plant was the target of our investigations in order to develop a standardized phytomedicine. Batankor syrup formulated from P. lanceolata L. is used to treat cough and other infections of the respiratory tract. Various active compounds such as flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoids have been identified from Plantago species. The present study was performed to estimate the acteoside content in formulated Bantakor syrup and P. lanceolata leaves collected from four different region of Rwanda. During this investigation, both UV-Vis Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods were developed and validated for determination the content of acteoside in analysts. The chromatographic fingerprints of P. lanceolata extracts represent phyto-equivalence even thought, there are, some differences in their profiles. The retention time of acteoside in the samples was at 6.9 minutes compared to the peak of standard. The plant sample from Rwabuye showed highest yield of acteoside (1.837%) while sample from Ngoma showed less acteoside content (0.594%). The content of acteoside in 1ml of Batankor syrup was found to be 142.19 µg ±0.83. The intraday precision (% RSD) on the basis of content of acteoside was found to be 0.09–0.45 whereas interday precision (% RSD) on the basis of the content were found to be 0.35-0.83, showing the stability of the sample within five days. Also, LOD and LOQ values were 4.26 and 12.90 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atazanavir and Cobicistat in Tablets

M. Venkata Siva Sri Nalini, B. Haribabu, P. Rama Krishna Veni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26115

Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of atazanavir and cobicistat in tablets.

Place and Duration of Study: At Rainbow Pharma Training Lab, Kukatapally, Hyderabad, India and Department of chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur, India in between October 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: Atazanavir and cobicistat was eluted on the Inertsil C8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1 M ammonium acetate and methanol (50:50 v/v), pumped at 1.2 mL/min flow rate. The column was maintained at 30°C and 10 μl of the solutions were injected. UV detection was performed at 234 nm. According to ICH guidelines, the method was validated.

Results: Under the optimized chromatographic conditions the retention times of atazanavir and cobicistat were 2.559 min and 3.576 min, respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 45-135 μg/mL for atazanavir and 22.5-67.5 μg/mL for cobicistat. The percent recovery and percent relative standard deviation for both the drugs were in the range of 99.311-100.342% and 0.290-0.401%, respectively. The results of forced degradation studies demonstrated the stability-indicating power of the method.

Conclusion: The proposed method was found to be appropriate for the quality control of atazanavir and cobicistat hydrochloride simultaneously in a bulk drug as well as in a pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Profile of Leaf Extracts of Ficus abutilifolia

F. O. Taiwo, A. A. Fidelis, O. Oyedeji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25608

Aims: To determine the antibacterial activities of leaf extract of Ficus abutilifolia against selected clinical bacterial isolates. Also, to analyse the extract for the constituent phytochemical compounds.

Study Design: In vitro antimicrobial assay of solvent fractions of plant leaf extract against selected clinical bacterial isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry and Microbiology Laboratories, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between February 2014 and February, 2015.

Methodology: The disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of clinical bacterial isolates to fractions of leaf extract of Ficus abutilifolia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the microdilution assay. The rate of killing of representative isolates as well as phytochemical profile of plant leaf extract were studied using standard methods.

Results: F. abutilifolia exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial isolates with mean zone diameter of inhibition ranging from 9.33±0.58 to 31.67±0.58 mm. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity with mean zone diameter of inhibition against the tested bacterial isolates being 27.67±1.15 to 31.67±0.58 mm. The MIC of the fractions ranged from 0.0313 to 0.250 µg/ml which compared favourably with that of the reference drug, streptomycin with mean MIC of 0.125 to 0.250 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent fraction with mean MIC of 0.0313 to 0.0625 µg/ml. Phytochemical assay of leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, anthraquinones, saponnins, flavonoids, alkaloids, reducing sugar, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates and phlobatannins.

Conclusion: The significant antibacterial activities exhibited by the ethyl acetate and other fractions suggest the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaf extract of F. abutilifolia. The plant could be a good source of antibacterial agents which can be developed as a pharmaceutical product. This study also supports the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of several infectious ailments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Studies of Some Medicinal Plants from Indian Sub-continent

Jamal Akhtar Ansari, Abdul Rahman Khan, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Nishat Fatima, Namrata Rastogi, Mohammad Faheem Khan, Homa Jilani Khan, Abbas Ali Mahdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26198

Aims: The Indian sub-continent has rich culture and a vast botanical diversity with high potential abilities of traditional medicine. However, there is a paucity of information available in scientific literature regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties of the natural products as anticancer agents. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemicals potential, total phenolics content, the presence of rutin and quercetin, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity, of Crotalaria juncea, Tinospora cordifolia and Rheum emodi methanolic extracts.

Study Design: Phytochemicals screening, total phenolics content, rutin and quercetin determination, in vitro antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

Place and Duration of Study: Natural Products Research Lab, Department of Biochemistry, King George’s Medical University, May 2014 and August 2015.

Methodology: The phytochemicals, total phenolics content and antioxidant potential were assessed by qualitative phytochemicals screening, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and DPPH assay, respectively. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to estimate the level of rutin and quercetin. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells by MTT and colony formation assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to examine apoptosis.

Results: All extracts showed antiradical activity and presence of phenolics content along with different phytochemicals. HPLC analysis showed presence of rutin and quercetin in T. cordifolia and R. emodi, however, C. juncea showed only presence of rutin. Antiproliferative activity revealed that T. cordifolia showed highest activity with lowest IC50 (51.74±3.14 to 21.7±2.5 µg /mL) as compared with other extracts. Hoechst 33342 staining showed that T. cordifolia induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

Conclusion: Overall, this study demonstrated that methanolic extracts of above plants has potent antiproliferative and antioxidant activity along with different phytochemicals. This calls for further studies on the active components for proper assessment of their chemotherapeutic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Colorant FD&C Yellow No. 5 Stability in Pharmaceutical Syrup Containing Ascorbic Acid and the Optimal Storage Condition

Amthal Algailani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26068

Stability of colorant FD&C Yellow No. 5 and ascorbic acid (AA) in pharmaceutical KndCold syrup under different storage conditions (Standard conditions, temperature variation, sunlight presence, and sodium hydroxide addition) have been investigated. Under the standard conditions, 18.6% of ascorbic acid in solution converted, while pulling the samples out to indirect sunlight, color intensity was increased by 53%., and AA loss was recorded as 19.1%. Storage temperature was had a harsh effect on AA degradation and color intensity, specifically the loss of AA and color intensity boost was 2.1%, 16.8%, 24.7% and 2.8%, 40%, 53.1%, at 0, 20, and 40°C, respectively. Subsequently, the role of pH was investigated by adding a base such as NaOH. The addition of the base produces the different pH syrups: 4.5, 5.8, and 7.4. A sample of pH 7.4 fulfills the lowest AA degradation rate, nearly 5.7%, similarly for color intensity change. In conclusion, ascorbic acid degradation in KndCold syrup has a direct influence on the concentration of the yellow color. The optimal conditions for processing the yellow colored pharmaceutical syrups, which contains ascorbic acid, could be a temperature below 10°C, the completely absence of sunlight, and basic solution pH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Nano Lipid Vesicles of Lornoxicam for Targeted Drug Delivery

Akhilesh Dubey, Prabhakara Prabhu, Jasmine Kumar Patel, Srinivas Hebbar, C. S. Shastry, R. Narayana Charyulu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25290

Aim: The aim of the present study was to formulate nano lipid vesicles of lornoxicam targeting to the specific site (inflamed area), and investigating it’s in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in animals (rats).

Methods: Liposomes of lornoxicam were prepared by thin film hydration method. Lornoxicam was loaded in stealth liposomes, conventional liposomes and coated conventional liposomes. Stealth liposomes were prepared by incorporating PEGylated lipids MPEGDSPE. Conventional liposomes were formulated using phospholipids Lipoid SPC-3 and cholesterol. Conventional liposomes were later coated with the hydrophilic biocompatible polymer chitosan which produced cationic liposomes. All the formulations were optimized to get the best entrapment efficiency.

Results: The average size of the unsonicated liposomes was found to be 844.4 nm, whereas the average particle size of sonicated liposomes was found to be 195.5 nm. Coating of lipid vesicles was confirmed by zeta potential values using a nano zeta sizer instrument which showed that the chitosan coated liposomes exhibited a positive zeta potential compared to the uncoated liposomes which had a negative zeta potential values. The PDI was found to be 0.4, indicated good dispersion of uniformly sized lipid vesicles. All coated conventional, uncoated conventional and PEGylated liposomal formulations followed Higuchi model drug release profile. Stability study showed higher drug content at refrigeration temperature when compared to the formulations stored at room temperature, after a period of 4 weeks. Chitosan coated liposomes were found to be more stable as the coating with chitosan prevents the oxidation of phospholipids. In vivo study was carried out in rats for their anti rheumatoid which showed that there was a significant reduction in edema volume in the rat group administered with the liposomal formulation.

Conclusion: PEGylated liposomes were found to be more effective and stable than the uncoated conventional liposomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Availability of Contraceptive Commodities in Osun State, Nigeria

C. O. Olonade, M. O. Afolabi, O. J. Ola-Olorun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23482

Background: Family planning (FP) is an important aspect of socio-economic development for which access to contraceptive commodities (CCs) by users is critical. Unfortunately, availability of CCs is usually compromised in most developing countries.

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess availability of contraceptive commodities in Osun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the FP unit of the State Ministry of Health (State central warehouse) and at Service Delivery Points (SDPs) for CCs in Osun State from April, 2015 to November, 2015.

Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained for the study. The study sample consisted of all 15 Service Providers (SPs) at the State central warehouse (SCW) and 336 SPs at the SDPs selected by multistage sampling technique. The study employed primary sources of data obtained with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire; personal interview; physical observation of storage and transportation facilities; and review of contraceptives inventory records. The 19-item questionnaire was adapted from previously standardized instrument and validated giving a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.79 and Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.80 for internal consistency. The items were made of statements with dichotomous ‘yes/no’ responses to elicit information on availability. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages including average percentage of unexpired availability (APOUA) of CCs and average percentage of stock-out time (APOSOT) of CCs while chi-square inferential statistics was employed to determine significant relationship between variables.

Results: The responses of SPs show that there was full supply of CCs at SCW (APOUA=100%; APOSOT=0%) but non-full supply at SDPs (APOUA=74.94%; APOSOT=14.28%). While all inventory CCs were available at the SCW at all time for the period under review, only 25% of SDPs had all inventory CCs available all the time. Identified factors responsible for non-full supply of CCs at SDPs include a pull system of inventory control accompanied by transportation inadequacy and logistics officers that appeared to possess low capacity and low motivation.

Conclusion: The study concluded that availability of CCs was optimal at State (regional) central warehouse but sub-optimal at SDPs. The sub-optimal availability of CCs at SDPs portends grave implications for attainment of contraceptive security and expectedly population control among the studied population. This calls for urgent government action in addressing identified issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Job Motivation of Hospital Pharmacists

O. Ayodapo Jegede, O. Joseph Ola-Olorun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23463

Aims: The study aimed to explore for factors influencing job motivation of hospital pharmacists.

Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife in Osun State of Nigeria between January 2015 and August 2015.

Methods: 87 out of 110 practising pharmacists in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Osun State were selected using simple random sampling method. Data were collected with the aid of a set of pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire that comprised two sections. The main section employed thirty three items made of statements on a Likert-type scale and elicited information on factors influencing motivation of the respondents. The scale was adapted from standardised instrument in literature. The thirty three items were reduced to eight constructs for purpose of analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and medians were used to summarize the data. Spearman’s rank correlation and multiple regression were used to test for relationships at 5% level of significance.

Results: Results of the regression analysis show that among the factors, only ‘retirement plans’ had significant influence on job motivation, F (1, 57) = 12.00, P = .00 and explained 11.4% of the variation in job motivation while ‘earning and benefits’, ‘task orientation and ‘mission orientation’ together explained 10.6% of variation in job motivation and this change in was significant, F (3, 82) = 3.45, P = .02. However only ‘mission orientation’ was a significant predictor of Job motivation (B = .283, P = .03).

Conclusion: The main determinants of motivation amongst the hospital pharmacists are ‘retirement plans’ and ‘mission orientation’ a construct combination of factors. Managers of health care facilities can benefit from these findings in the management of their pharmacist resource.