Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Hexane and Ethanol Leaf Extract of Pterocarpus Erinaceous poir (Fabaceae)

U. M. Jajere, G. Ibrahim, U. H. Danmalam, A. Anas, S. I. Ibrahim, M. Mohammed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24605

This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the hexane and ethanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceous poir (Fabaceae). Ethno medicinally, the leaves are used in treatment of conjunctivitis, diarrhea, malnutrition, inflammation and scabies. The phytochemical screening using standard methods revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes and steroids. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were tested against some gram positives and gram negatives clinical isolates and the activity was determined using well diffusion method with zones of inhibition ranges from 20-30 mm for hexane and 18-25 mm for ethanol. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts was determined at 0.5 Mc-farland’s turbidity standard. The extracts at 2.5-50 mg/ml (Hexane extract) and 5.0-10 mg/ml (Ethanol extract) inhibited the growth of the clinical isolates. Minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration of the extracts range from 5-20 mg/ml (Hexane extract) and 5-10 mg/ml (Ethanol extract) Zones of inhibition of the extracts were comparable with that of standard drugs, Ciprofloxacin (30-42 mm) against bacteria and fluconazole (35-37 mm) against fungal isolates. In conclusion, the extracts have great potential antimicrobial activity and support the claimed traditional uses of the leaves in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phyto Medicinal Compounds from Urginea indica Kunth: A Synthetic Drugs Potential Alternative

R. Prabakaran, Bibin Joseph, Pranav N. Pradeep

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25216

Urginea indica belongs to Lilliaceae family the analysis of bioactive compounds through GCMS analysis revealed the presence of various phytosterols, organic acids, esters, phenoles and ketones have identified. The 36 compounds identified included hepato protective and dermatogenic 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid 18.02%, anti cancerous and anti glycemic. Stigmasterol 17.35%, and Squalene 3.22%, antimicrobial and Hypocholesterolemic n-Hexadecanoic acid 14.26%, Antimicrobial, Diuretic Phytol 10.63%, anti carcinogenic pyrogallol 10.40%, anti atherosclerotic 9,12 -Octadecadienoic acid 6.44%, Octadecanoic acid 3.36% were identified. It was also reported to have various alkaloids, flavonoid glycosides, anti oxidants, saponins, proteins and carbohydrate. The identified compounds gave reason to various traditional medicines from U. indica and a key to new medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of the Anticaries Activity of Three Common Chewing Sticks and Two Brands of Toothpaste in South West Nigeria

Odeleye Olubola Florence, Okunye Olufemi Lionel, Kesi Christopher, Abatan Temitope Olubunmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/26004

Aim: To evaluate three common chewing sticks and two brands of toothpaste in south west Nigeria for the ability to control caries-causing bacteria.

With an increase in tooth decay and gum diseases all over the world, there is need to produce oral cleaning agents that will better control caries-causing bacteria.

Study Design: Three common chewing sticks in South-West Nigeria- Fagara zanthoxyloides (FZ), Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Massularia accuminata (MA)- and two brands of toothpaste- Close Up and Macleans- were evaluated for their anti-caries activities.

Fifty isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, one of the bacteria often implicated in dental caries, isolated from patients presenting with various dental problems at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria were obtained from the Medical Microbiology Department of the Hospital.

Methodology: The isolates were challenged with the toothpastes, undiluted, as well as ethanol and aqueous extracts of the chewing sticks using the agar cup diffusion method. The chewing sticks were also screened for secondary metabolites using standard procedures.

Results: The ethanol extracts of Fagara zanthoxyloides (FZ) showed the highest anti-caries activity followed by Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and then Massularia acuminata (MA). 43 isolates (86%) were sensitive to the ethanol extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides while 36 (72%) and 25 (50%) were sensitive to Vernonia amygdalina and Massularia acuminata respectively.

Both brands of toothpaste were inferior to the ethanol extracts of all the chewing sticks in anti-caries activity. Only 15 (30%) and 20 (40%) of the isolates were sensitive to Close up and Macleans respectively.

16 (32%), 14 (28%) and 10 (20%) of the isolates were sensitive to the aqueous extracts of FZ, MA and VA respectively.

Conclusion: The active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the chewing sticks will be useful as anti caries components of herbal toothpastes which are becoming common in the market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Therapeutic Potentials of the Ethylacetate Fractions of Crude Methanolic Extract of Monodora myristica Seed

Ezeudo Ewuziem Nwaozuzu, Godwin Chukwu Ebi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23227

Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial properties and potential therapeutic applications of Monodora myristica seed.

Study Design: Antimicrobial evaluation design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry research laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between January 2000 and February 2001.

Methodology: Standardized solutions of ethylacetate-soluble and ethylacetate-insoluble fractions of the methanolic extracts of Monodora myristica seed were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against some gram-positive bacteria, some gram-negative bacteria, a yeast and a mould using the agar disk method.

Results: The ethylacetate-soluble fraction showed significant activities against the gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli), the yeast (Candida albicans) and the mould (Aspergillus niger) with most of the activities comparable to those of the controls. Its activity against K. pneumoniae was greater than that of the control while its activity against E. coli was equal to that of the control. Its activities were also greater than those of the ethylacetate-insoluble fraction against most of the test organisms except against C. albicans where its activity was less than that of the ethylacetate-insoluble fraction. The activity of the ethylacetate-insoluble fraction against K. pneumoniae was also equal to that of the control. However both the ethylacetate-soluble and ethylacetate-insoluble fractions had no activity against the gram-positive bacteria (Staphyllococus aureus) and the gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi). Again, compared to the controls, the activities of both fractions against C. albicans and A. niger were not as strong as those against the other sensitive gram positive and gram negative organisms.

Conclusion: The ethylacetate-soluble fraction of M. myristica seed has greater antimicrobial activities than the ethylacetate-insoluble fraction. The activities of the ethylacetate-soluble fraction were comparable to those of the controls, being greater against K. pneumonia and equal against E. coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Design Principles and Users Demand for Hospital Gardens: Case Study of Egirdir-Turkey

Candan Kus Sahin, Atila Gul, O. Kamil Orucu, Sehriban Eraslan, Sibel Akten

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24862

Aims: The plants in hospital garden have many functions to users. Hence attention on those areas should be done. A specific hospital and its gardens chosen to be determine expectations and express of users to determine suggestions for hospital garden to be improved.

Study Design:  The Egirdir Bone Joint Diseases Treatment and Rehabilitation Hospital (EBH) was chosen as a model hospital for evaluating expectation from hospital gardens and landscape design suggestions of different user groups. A questionnaire was prepared to ask proposed groups for determining expectations, demand, reflection of hospital garden to them, suggestions noted on improving garden design and functionality.

Methodology: The study conducted with face to face survey technique of those groups. The questionnaire was prepared to ask the participants for evaluating reflection of hospital garden to them, suggestions on improving garden design and functionality. The basic principle for design of hospital structure should be prioritizing all serving users with satisfaction. The survey was conducted on 93 females and 57 males in total of 150 participants.

Results: The plant forms, texture, color, smell, light, shade and seasonal changes with different plant composition should be created in EBH garden. However, the creation of a focal point suggested. Hence,  it was suggested to use pyramid-shaped plants, especially columns should be preferred in the EBH’s garden. Even some evergreen plants and prune through formal and informal as solitary figures could also be considered during plantation as well. Moreover, calming and soothing soft colors such as; green, blue, white, lilac, red and orange colors should be preferred in these kinds of places (e.g., hospital gardens). It was clearly observed that the demands, trends, perceptions and needs to be taken into account during design of hospital and its surround for satisfaying users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of 3β, 22E-Stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-ol from the Aerial Part of Aeschynomene uniflora E. Mey

J. I. Achika, G. I. Ndukwe, R. G. Ayo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23506

Objectives: To isolate, characterize and determine the antimicrobial activity of bioactive compounds present in the petroleum ether fraction of the aerial parts of Aeschynomene uniflora E. Mey.

Methods: Aeschynomene uniflora was collected, identified, dried and pulverized. The pulverized plant material was subjected to Soxhlet extraction using petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract was subjected to chromatographic techniques which yielded J1. J1 was then subjected to antimicrobial screening using some selected microorganisms.  J1 was characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques.

Results: The structure of the isolated compound was established to be 3β, 22E-Stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3-ol (stigmasterol) using spectroscopic analysis (IR, 1D-NMR). The isolated compound showed significant antimicrobial activity on some selected microorganisms.

Conclusion: The results could justify the use of the aerial parts of Aeschynomene uniflora in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various microbial diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-medication with Antibiotics: Empirical Evidence from a Nigerian Rural Population

I. S. Abdulraheem, A. Adegboye, A. A. Fatiregun

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25268

Background: Self-medication is a strong determinant of antimicrobial overuse as well as a causative of drug resistance. Irrational antibiotic use among patients has led to antibiotic resistance and serious health problem globally.

Objective: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in a sample of rural population presenting in primary health care centers in Northern Nigeria and evaluate socio-demographic factors associated with the practice.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 1,150 randomly selected clinic attendees who visited the 25 Primary Health Centers in Niger State, Nigeria, between August 2014 and February 2015. Only participants who lived and reside in Niger State, Nigeria were enrolled into the study.

Results: In this study 602 men and 548 women, with mean age of 52.6±16.5 years actually participated. The prevalence of antibiotics self-medication was 82.2%. The major sources of antibiotic self-medication were drug stores (20.4%), chemist shops (58.2%) & pharmacy (10.9%). The antibiotics most frequently used for self-medication were ampicillin/ cloxacillin combination (24.1%), ampicillin (20.3%), sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim combination (14.2%), metronidazole (13.9%) and tetracycline (13.1%). Cough with productive mucus (30.1%), sore throat (23.7%), unremitting fever (20.7%), dysuria (10.6%) skin sepsis (7.5%), and vaginal discharge (7.4%) were the most frequent indications for the use of self-medicated antibiotics. The most important factors associated with self-medication were affordability (79.3%), accessibility 68.4% and application of previous prescriptions (60.4%).

Conclusion: Knowledge of antibiotics from rural population in Niger state, Nigeria is insufficient. Despite the open and rapid access to primary health care services, it appears that a high proportion of rural population in Niger state use antibiotics without medical prescription. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians, pharmacists and chemists before prescribing and dispensing antibiotics. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Nigeria and requires considerable attention.