Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Ophthalmic Drop and In-situ Gel from Roots of Boerhaavia diffusa

Pooja ., V. K. Lal, Anurag Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24395

The present investigation deals to evaluate efficacy of ophthalmic drop and in-situ gel formulations of aqueous distillate of Boerhaavia diffusa roots using polymers sodium alginate (SA), HPMC (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose) 15 cps and Carbopol 940 (CB). Where (SA) was used for eye drop and two in situ gels of aqueous distillate, one was using HPMC (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose- 15 cps. And SA (sodium alginate) and another were using HPMC (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose- 15 cps and CB (Carbopol 940). Eye drops and gels were sterilized and assessed for various parameters like clarity, pH, physical appearance, physical stability, viscosity and uniformity of drug content. The release rate from the formulation within a period of 9 h for eye drop was 80.56% and in two in-situ gels were 84.66% and 82.4% respectively. Both eye drop and ophthalmic gels obeyed zero order kinetics for drug release. The ocular irritation was carried out on male Wister rats and no redness, inflammation and increase in tear was seen. The efficacies of both formulations (eye drop and gel) were assessed using subcutaneously 0.01% w/v sodium selenite-induced cataract in male Wister rats. The result concludes that in-situ gel is more efficacious than eye drop, and was found to be more stable at ambient, refrigerator and incubated temperature. The stability of eye drop and the gels was evidenced by the degradation rate constant. Ophthalmic gel formulated by HPMC with SA and HPMC with CB, proves to be viable alternative to conventional eye drops as it offers longer precorneal residence time and excellent ocular tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Serum IL-17 with Level of Vitamin D and IgE in Asthmatic Patients

Foqia Naz, Nadeem Afzal, Faheem Shahzad, Muhammad Kashif, Khursheed Javed, Shah Jahan, Waqas Latif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23474

Background: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways caused by   hypersensitivity and  characterized by Th2 cytokine i.e. IL-4, that contribute to enhanced proliferation and differentiation of Th2 cells and switch of B cells from IgM to IgE production. Vitamin D also has a role in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis of cells of the immune system, production of cytokines, and immunoglobulins. Elevated levels of IL-17 have been documented in bronchial submucosa and relationship of IL-17 and severe hyper responsiveness of airways have been established. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine serum level of vitamin D, IgE and IL-17 in patients of bronchial asthma.

Methodology: It was a comparative study, which included 82 subjects i.e. Group-I (41 subjects without asthma), and group-II (41 asthmatic patients). Serum levels of IL-17, IgE and vitamin D were determined by ELISA technique and the results were analyzed by using SPSS-20.0. Mann-Whitney-U, Chi-square and Pearson’s correlation tests were used for data analysis.

Results: Mean ± SD of total serum IgE level of bronchial asthma patients was high (861.6±559.2 IU/ml) compared to controls (204.7±237 IU/ml) and on comparison there was statistically significant difference (p value 0.000). Mean ± SD of serum vitamin D level in asthmatics was 28.04±17.67 ng/ml while in non-asthmatics it was 27.27±17.01 ng/ml and on comparison the difference was not statistical significant (p=0.915). Mean ± SD of serum level of IL-17 was high in asthmatics (920.08±732 pg/ml) as compared to non-asthmatics (767.71±811 pg/ml) and on comparison the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.108). In asthmatics, there was positive correlation of serum level of vitamin D and IL-17 (r=0.101) and there was an association (p=0.001) of family history with asthma.

Conclusion: Asthmatics had raised serum level of IgE, vitamin D and IL-17 as compared to controls and on comparison only the difference of IgE was statistically significant. Further, an association of family history of asthma was observed in asthmatic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Bioactivities of two Marine Sponges, Zygomycale parishii and Callyspongia diffusa from Southwest Coast of India

K. A. Athira Krishnan, T. R. Keerthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24740

Aims: The present study was done to evaluate and compare the bioactivities of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of two marine sponges, Zygomycale parishii and Callyspongia diffusa from Southwest coast of India.

Place and Duration of the Study: At the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University between May 2013- August 2014.

Methodology: The methanol and dichloromethane extracts of the two selected species were prepared and were subjected to various bioactivities. Antioxidant activity was assayed using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay and total antioxidant activity assay. Antibacterial activity was assayed by the disc diffusion method using the selected pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. Immunomodulatory activity was analyzed by calculating the phagocytic index and by Nitro Blue tetrazolium assay. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was examined by modified Ellman’s method. The chemical constituents of these extracts were analyzed by routine phytochemical methods.

Results: Antioxidant activity was assayed using DPPH radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity indicated that both sponge extracts possessed antioxidant activity and the dichloromethane extract of Zygomycale was more active with an IC50 value of 486µg. Immunomodulatory activity was analyzed by calculating phagocytic index and Nitro Blue tetrazolium assay indicated that the extract of Zygomycale was more immunomodulatory. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity assay revealed that Zygomycale extract was more active with an inhibitory potential in the range of 49-61%.The chemical constituents of these extracts were analyzed by routine phytochemical methods showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, triterpenoid, and aromatic acids in both the sponge extracts.

Conclusion: The extracts of Zygomycale parishii was more active in all the assays performed compared to that of Callyspongia diffusa. So it can be concluded that further fractionation and purification will yield potent compounds for pharmaceutical leads.

Open Access Original Research Article

Higher Haemoglobin Level Variation under Treatment with Erythropoitin is Associated with Mortality in Haemodialysis

Joachim Beige, Grit Glombig, Ralph Wendt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/25146

Background: During recent years therapy with erythropoesis stimulating agents (ESA) in chronic kidney disease necessitating dialysis (CKD5D) has been challenged following worse study outcome in patients exceeding upper haemoglobin (Hb) target levels. Considering such difficulties to establish a certain and safe Hb target, a focus more on trends of Hb change and fluctuation might be beneficial to encase alternative parameters and hypotheses into anemia management. We conducted an analysis investigating the association of hemoglobin variation, and achievement of Hb targets with mortality in 245 hemodialysis patients from an outpatient center within 15 years follow-up.

Methods: Variation coefficients of Hb course, Hb levels, proportion of Hb within guideline targets, means of ESA dose and dose response were considered as independent variables. Further variables for population characterization and multivariate survival analysis were age, gender and laboratory surrogates.

Outcome was computed as

(¡) Overall mortality by computing OR for death and
(¡¡) Mortality difference between two Hb variation groups compared by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate survival analysis.

Results: The OR of death in the higher of two Hb variation groups was 5.01 (95% CI 2.85 to 9.11). Hb variation coefficient above 4% had a strong association with all-cause mortality (LogRank=54.1, p<0.001). Hb variation, Hb levels, Hb within targets and ESA dose response, entered overall and conditional multivariate models for survival (x2=131.3; p<0.001) with Hb variation holding the strongest place in every model.

Conclusion: This unselected population exhibited a strong, significant association of Hb variation and a weaker association of reaching Hb targets with crude mortality.  Clinical pathways as well as future controlled trials should encounter these findings in algorithms for ESA therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity and Biochemical Screening of two Glycyrrhiza L. Species

Yavuz Selim Cakmak, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Ahmet Duran, Ozlem Çetin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24363

Aims: Glycyrrhiza L. is one of the most widely used plants in traditional medicine since antiquity. For the determining of the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of two Glycyrrhiza species different parts.

Study Design: In the current study, antioxidant activities, essential oils and fatty acid compositions of root and aerial parts of G. iconica and G. flavescens subsp. flavescens were examined. To measure antioxidant activities of methanol extracts, different chemical methods were carried out.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Physiology and Biochemistry Research Laboratory (December 2011- November 2012). 

Methodology: The antioxidant capacity tests were designed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza species tested. The extracts will be executed for their possible antioxidant activities by five different test systems namely total antioxidant capacity (phosphomolibdat assay), β-carotene/linoleic acid test system, free radical scavenging (DPPH), ferric and cupric ion reducing power (CUPRAC). Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of each extract were also determined by using both Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride.

Results: The root of G. iconica showed the highest activity in all methods. The major components of essential oils from Glycyrrhiza species were 1-pentylcyclobutene, naphtalene, hexahydro farnesyl acetone, phytol, dimethylamine and n-hexadecanoic acid. In fatty acid profiles of these two taxa, the main fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic acids.

Conclusion: Our results showed that studied parts of two Glycyrrhiza species can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants that could be important in pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Throughput Lc-Ms/Ms Method for the Quantitation of Emtricitabine in Human Plasma by Solid Phase Extraction Using 96 Well Plate Format

Tangudu Nagabhusana Rao, Guntuku Girija Sankar, Lade Jyothi Rani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24231

Aim: To develop and validate sensitive, high-throughput Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the quantification of Emtricitabine in human plasma using Lamivudine as an internal standard (ISTD) using 96 well plate format  solid phase extraction (SPE) technique.

Methodology: The samples were extracted from plasma using solid phase extraction (SPE) in 96 well plate format. After extraction the analyte and internal standard were analyzed on Inertsil ODS column with dimensions 4.6 X 100 mm, 5 µm using a mobile phase consisting of Methanol: 0.2% formic acid in water 85:15, v/v. The precursor and product ions of the analytes were monitored on a triple quadrupole instrument operated in the positive ionization mode.

Results: The method was validated with concentration range of 5.024 to 5023.725 ng/mL. The relative recoveries were ranging from 60.7 to 65.9%. Three validation batches were performed with five QC levels (LLOQ, LQC, MQC II, MQC and HQC). Across three validation runs the inter batch precision (%CV) was ≤ 9.2% and the accuracy was between 98.9–106.0%. All the stability experiments found satisfactory.

Conclusion: According to the method validation results, the current method was found to be specific, accurate, sensitive, precise and high throughput method. This method can be used for the estimation of Emtricitabine in human plasma during routine analysis.

Open Access Review Article

Ethnopharmacological Importance of Xylopia aethiopica (DUNAL) A. RICH (Annonaceae) - A Review

John Peter Fetse, William Kofie, Reimmel Kwame Adosraku

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24746

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Xylopia aethiopica or Ethiopian pepper is a plant that thrives in most of the evergreen rain forests of tropical and subtropical Africa, and it is currently grown most prominently in Ghana as a crop. Almost all parts of Xylopia aethiopica possess great medicinal values in traditional medicine. In most parts of Africa, it is used in the treatment of cough, rheumatism, dysentery, malaria, uterine fibroid, boils, and wounds among others. This review summarizes published data on phytochemistry, toxicological properties, Ethnopharmacological and other uses of Xylopia aethiopica, and aims at providing an up-to-date detail that should constitute baseline information for future research on the plant.

Materials and Methods: Google Scholar, Scifinder® and PubMed were the electronic databases used to search for and filter published research on Xylopia aethiopica.

Results: The various parts of Xylopia aethiopica possess a wide diversity of phytochemicals. A detailed description of only a few of these phytochemicals i.e. essential oils, alkaloids and diterpenes is available in published research currently. Extracts and isolates from almost all parts of the plant tends to possess one bioactivity or another that confirms its traditional uses, and have largely shown to be of low toxicity.

Conclusion: Xylopia aethiopica has shown to possess potential pharmacological benefits; there is however, the need for further research to be conducted on various extracts and isolates of the plant that showed promise during In vitro and animal studies, to ascertain its potency, safety and efficacy in humans.