Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extracts on Bacteria Obtained from Infected Infant Respiratory Tract

Lawrence B. Etim, Godwin Attah Obande, Chuku Aleruchi, V. E. Bassey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24757

Background: Annual incidence of respiratory infection and death among infants aged between one (1) to two (2) years is increasing, especially in remote areas of the world. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological disorders. Plants contain various bioactive components that have been explored in ethnomedicine. Nigeria has abundance of such plants.

Aim: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity and potency of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extracts on pathogens isolated from infants with respiratory tract infection.

Place of Study: The study was conducted at the Microbiology laboratory of the Cross River University of Technology in Cross River, Nigeria.

Methodology: The in vitro antibacterial potency of methanol and aqueous extracts of B. pinnatum leaf against Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. isolated from sputum of five infants was tested. The susceptibility of the isolates to the extracts as well as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were assayed on Mueller-Hinton Agar by the disc diffusion method, using concentrations of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20 mg/ml. Selected antibiotics and the respective solvents used, served as positive and negative controls respectively.

Results: Staphylococcus sp. (52%), Streptococcus sp. (36.6%), Klebsiella sp. (9.4%) and pus cells (2%) were found in the samples. Both the methanol and aqueous extracts of B. pinnatum leaf showed strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sp (16.7; 17.3 mm) and Staphylococcus sp. (13.0; 16.3 mm). Antibacterial activity of both the methanol and aqueous extracts was more pronounced against Streptococcus sp. than against Staphylococcus sp. Methanol extract was more inhibitory to both isolates than the aqueous extract. The MIC of the aqueous extract was observed to be at 80 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml, while that of the methanol extract was 100 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. respectively. The MBC of both the methanol and aqueous extracts was at 100 mg/ml concentration. Isolates were resistant to over 60% of the tested commercial antibiotics. Leaf extracts of B. pinnatum showed more antibacterial activity than some of the broad spectrum antibiotics.

Conclusion: B. pinnatum leaves could be useful in the treatment of infant respiratory infections and a potential source of antibacterial agents and raw material for the pharmaceutical industry if adequately explored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activities and Bioactive Constituents of Stephania abyssinica

Alemayehu P. Washe, Desalegn Fanta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24840

Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Stephania abyssinica (S. abyssinica) and isolate the bioactive constituents.

Study Design: The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of the extracts was evaluated by measuring serum levels of biochemical parameters of liver function in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rats.

Place and Duration of Study: A preliminary survey was conducted in the rural areas of Wolaita (Southern part of Ethiopia) from September to December 2015. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies were conducted at the Laboratories of Department of Pharmacology, and Department of Chemistry of Dilla University.

Methodology: The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of roots and rhizomes of the plant was studied by determining serum levels of the biochemical markers of liver function including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and bilirubin concentrations before and after treatments with CCl4 and plant extracts. Bioactive principles were isolated by fractionation followed by concentration by preparative Thin Layer Chromatography. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13CNMR, DEPT-135, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC.

Results: Administration of CCl4 alone to the rats significantly increased the total bilirubin concentration, GOT, GPT, and ALP (P = 0.05). However, simultaneous injection of oral dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt of the extracts reduced the serum levels of the enzymes by 53.42, 33.62, and 55.00% respectively. When 100 mg/Kg b.wt standard drug Silymarin was used, the decrease in the enzyme levels was by 44.00, 66.84, and 58.36%. Our fractionation experiments led to the identification of new hasubanan type alkaloid named as 6-(3’-hydroxy-4’-methoxycinnamoyl) stephine and the containing fraction displayed moderate hepatoprotective activity.

Conclusions: The observed hepatoprotective activities of methanolic extracts of roots and rhizomes of S. abyssinica lend credence to its claimed traditional use against liver diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Hepatoprotective Effect Produced by the Fruits of Phyllanthus emblicus and Silymarin against Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity

Mamuna Naz, Nahid Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22904

Cisplatin is a cytotoxic drug which induced the hepatotoxicity in the albino mice when intra-peritoneally administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Administration of cisplatin raised the level of LFT’s enzymes and also reduced the level of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of the mice. Administration of Phyllanthus emblica extract and silymarin remarkably showed the hepatoprotective effect in the rat. Administration of P. emblica and silymarin decreased the level of ALT, AST, and ALP along with increasing the level of Total protein content. It also increased the level of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rat showing its hepatoprotective activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Activity of the Antibiotic Meropenem in Combination with Edible Mushroom Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Debasmita Chatterjee, Dipankar Halder, Satadal Das

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24834

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potency of meropenem in synergism with five edible mushroom extracts against multidrug resistant clinical isolates.

Methodology: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of meropenem in combination with each of the extract of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus eous, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Calocybe indica was determined separately against multidrug resistant  bacterial strains. Among the applied microbial strains four were extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, one each of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The synergistic antibacterial activity was assessed and compared based on Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index.

Results: The extracts of the P. eous and P. ostreatus showed excellent synergistic activity, against all the strains of ESBL producing E. coli as well as ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas the extract of mushroom P. florida and C. indica showed synergistic effect against some of the ESBL producing microorganisms. This study indicated edible mushrooms extracts can potentiate the action of standard antibiotic meropenem against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Conclusion: Synergistic effect of conventional antibiotic meropenem with edible mushroom extracts against multidrug resistant microorganisms will help in fighting against multidrug resistant bugs in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidant and Antimicrobial Flavonoid Glycosides from Alstonia boonei De Wild Leaves

Nkeoma N. Okoye, Chukwuma O. B. Okoye

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24809

Aims: Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) leaves are used traditionally in several parts of West Africa (including Nigeria) and Asia for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatic and muscular pains as well as hypertension and malaria. The aim of this study is to isolate the phytoconstituents responsible for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Methodology: The leaves of Alstonia boonei were extracted in methanol and the methanol extracted subjected to series of chromatographic separation for the isolation of 8 flavonoid glycosides. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of UV, HPLC-MS, 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of the isolated flavonoid glycosides was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging model while the antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar well diffusion technique.

Results: The flavonoid glycosides were elucidated as Rutin (1), Quercetin robinobioside (2), Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3), Kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside (4) and compounds 5, 7 and 8 which are glycosides of quercetin and compound 8 which is a flavonoid of kaempferol. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 which are all glycosides of quercetin showed good antioxidant activities (IC50 ˂66 μg/mL) on DPPH free radical scavenging model. Compounds 3, 4 and 6 which are derivatives of kaempferol, however, showed poor activity (IC50 >200 μg/mL). Of all the compounds, only 7 and 8 were active against Escherichia coli with IZD (inhibition zone diameter) values of 17 and 13 mm at 62.5 μg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: The profound antioxidant activity of the isolated quercetin derivatives may explain the ethnomedicinal use of the plant extracts in the management of inflammatory diseases and other disorders associated with oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Various Isolates in Urine Specimen at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Islamabad

Humaira Zafar, Noor Khan Lakhnana, Kiran Tauseef, Mudassira Zahid, Ahsan Kazmi, Anum Usman, Ayesha Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23905

Background: The updated guidelines by CDC (center for disease control) narrated the importance of using the dataprovided by hospital antibiogram for initial prescription of managing the infections. Therefore the current study had been planned to formulate the antibiogram in a tertiary care hospital of Islamabad.

Objectives: To identify the local antibiotic susceptibility pattern against various isolates of urine pathogens.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at the Pathology department of Al Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. The duration of study was 04 months i.e between1st June to 1st Oct. 2015. Total 336 suspected urinary tract infection, urine specimens (indoor and outdoor) received for culture and sensitivity were included in the study. Recommended clean catch method was advised for urine sample collection. The specimen processing was done by following the three days recommended protocols for urine cultures by Clinical and laboratory standard institutes (CLSI).Frequencies and percentages were the numerical variables extracted by using the SPSS version 16.

Results: Out of total 336 samples, 9.8% (n=33) urine cultures were positive. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was present in (60.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae in (12.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in (9.09%), Proteus mirabilis in (6.06%), Morganella morganii in (6.06%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in (6.06%). The drugs of choice for E. coli are quinolones and aminoglycosides by showing the sensitivity of about (75%) each. For Klebsiella pneumoniae, the ideal antibiotics are aminoglycosides (85.1%) and 2nd generation cephalosporins (85%). For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended spectrum penicillin, quinolones, 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins are the most suitable ones showing the sensitivity of (100%) each.

Conclusion: Quinolones, aminoglycosides, 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choices for thetreatment of urine infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antisalmonellal and Antioxidant Activities of the Crude Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Albizia gummifera (J. F. Gmel.) C. A. Sm.

Serge Secco Atsafack, Norbert Kodjio, Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Augustin Ntemafack, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Donatien Gatsing

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/24197

Aims: Typhoid fever is an infectious disease, which continues to be a serious health problem and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing country. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of Albizia gummifera (Leguminosae/Fabaceae), this study was designed to investigate the in vitro antisalmonellal and antioxidant activities of various extracts and fractions of this plant against five Salmonella species.

Study Design: Extraction, fractionation, antibacterial and antioxidant evaluation, phytochemical screening.

Place and Duration of the Study:  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon, between October 2013 and November 2014.

Methods: Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, whereas the evaluation of antioxidant properties, quantitative determination of total phenols and flavonoids, phytochemical screening were performed by other standard methods.

Results: The data obtained showed that minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 64 to 512 µg/ml. Crude extract, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed significant antibacterial activity (MIC = 64 µg/ml). The extracts and fractions exhibited moderate antioxidant properties (IC50 values obtained ranged from 48.80 to 61.90 µg/mL for the aqueous extracts, and from 28.10 to 34.10 µg/mL for the MeOH/CH2Cl2 extract and fractions). Ethyl acetate fraction at 200 µg/ml showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activity. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and phenols in all the extracts and fractions.

Conclusion: The results suggest that stem extract of A. gummifera contains antisalmonellal and antioxidant substances, which could be developed for the treatment of typhoid fever and other salmonellosis.