Open Access Short Research Article

Toxic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng on Allium cepa

Cláudia Fernanda Caland Brígido, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Antônio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Ivana Grivicich, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23990

Aims: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. belonging to the Lamiaceae family being extensively used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory effects, nonetheless, there is a lack of more substantial data on the toxicogenetic effects of this preparations. This study aimed to evaluate possible cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus on Allium cepa assay.

Methods: Distilled water was used as negative control and a solution of copper sulfate was used as positive control. Also a qualitative chemical screening for the identification of the major classes of active constituents were performed.

Results: The results demonstrate the presence of diterpenes and flavonoids, and a decreased in the mitotic index as the concentrations of extract increased.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that a toxic effect at high doses of Plectranthus amboinicus can be related to the presence of flavonoids and diterpenes.

Open Access Short Research Article

Molecular Docking Studies of Sesquiterpenoids against Helicobacter pylori Peptide Deformylase

Muhammad Dawood, Nighat Fatima, Amara Mumtaz, Sidra Rehman, Irum Shazadi, Qaisar Mahmood, Syed Aun Muhammad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23792

Helicobacter pylori is a gastric mucosal pathogen and is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal diseases like peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. New molecules are required for effective treatment due to emerging issues of antibiotic resistance. However, the recognition of anti-Helicobacter pylori agent is a difficult task due to inadequacy of perfect protein target sites. Peptide deformylase is a significant and essential enzyme for bacterial growth due to its vital role in peptide chain elongation. In human cells peptide deformylase has no effect on the synthesis of protein therefore it can be an effective and selective drug target against Helicobacter pylori infections. In this study, binding mode of five sesquiterpenoids against the peptide deformylase was determined. The 3-dimensional structure of peptide deformylase for in-sillico study was accessed from the Protein Data Bank. Pharmacokinetics profile of sesquiterpenoids derivatives was determined by applying Lipinski’s rule of 5. The binding energies of molecular docking for 1 to 5 ligands are: -13, -15, -11, -13, and -11 kcal/mol respectively. The compound 2 exhibited reasonably good binding affinity (-15 kcal/mol) when compared with other ligands. This study could pave the ways for in-vitro analysis to establish these compounds as potential anti-Helicobacter pylori drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Screening and Phytochemical Analysis of Elaeis guineensis (Ewe Igi Ope) against Salmonella Strains

O. E. Ajayi, S. I. Awala, A. G. Ogunleye, F. N. Okogbue

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23659

Aim: The study aimed at determining the in vitro anti-salmonella effect of Elaeis guineensis on Salmonella species isolated from clinically suspected typhoid fever patients in FUTA, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study evaluated the prospective use of Elaeis guineensis as an alternative to conventional drugs in the treatment of salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) Health Centre was used for the study which Investigation was done during June to September, 2015.

Methodology: Two hundred (200) blood samples were collected from clinically suspected typhoid fever patients attending FUTA Health Centre in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from the blood samples using selective media. The identities of the isolates were verified using conventional microbiological techniques. Elaeis guineensis leaves were collected from Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA) Teaching and Research Farm, and the plant’s identity was authenticated using standard manuals at Crop Science and Pest Department, FUTA. The antibacterial effect of methanolic, acetone and hexane extracts of the plant leaves on Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening were performed on the leaf extracts. Antibiotics susceptibility profile of the isolates was also assessed using commercially available antibiotics.

Results: The highest zone of inhibition (21.67±1.20 mm) was observed with the methanolic extract at concentration of 100 mg/mL for Salmonella Typhimurium. No zone of inhibition was observed for hexane at the concentration of 6.25 and 12.5 (mg/mL).  Highest zone of inhibition (17.00±0.58 mm) was observed with the methanolic extract at concentration of 100 mg/ml for Salmonella Typhi and the least (0.33±0.33 mm) was observed with the hexane extract at a concentration of 25 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of many secondary metabolites including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Flavonoids was highest (118.03±0.29) in methanol extract and least (8.00±0.00) in hexane extract. Same trend was observed for other phytochemicals present.  As for the conventional antibiotics, Salmonella Typhi had the highest zone of inhibition (23.00 mm) with ciprofloxacin and the least (1.33 mm) with augmentin, Salmonella Typhimurium recorded the highest zone of inhibition (23 mm) with ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin, while the lowest (4 mm) was recorded with tetracycline.

Conclusion: These findings showed that Elaeis guineensis is a potential source of reliable phytotherapy in combating salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Perspectives on Asphodeline lutea from Bulgaria and Turkey: Anti-mutagenic, Anti-microbial and Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Activity

Ahmet Uysal, Irina Lazarova, Gokhan Zengin, Erdogan Gunes, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Reneta Gevrenova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23957

Aims: In this study, methanol extracts of Asphodeline lutea roots from Bulgaria (ALB) and Turkish (ALT) origin were evaluated for their anti-microbial, anti-MRSA properties and they were also screened for the potential of mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities.

Methodology: The broth micro dilution method was performed for the anti-microbial activities. For mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity screening of the extracts, plate incorporation method of Ames test was employed.

Results: Sarcina lutea was the most sensitive bacterium against ALB and ALT extracts at doses of 1.56 and 0.78 mg/ml, respectively. Both extracts exhibited similar activity against methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Salmonella enteritidis with MIC value 6.25 mg/ml. Based on the results obtained from Ames test, no mutagenic activity was found for frame shift mutation (TA98) and base pair substitution (TA100) in all concentrations of A. lutea. Strong anti-mutagenic properties with rates of 77% and 75% were observed at the highest concentrations of both extracts against 2-aminofluorene-induced mutagenicity on TA 98 with the presence of metabolic activator S9 system.

Conclusion: As a result, the extracts revealed significant anti-MRSA activity with MIC values 6.25 mg/ml against MRSA strains isolated from infections and manifested strong anti-mutagenic activity against known mutagens; it may be used in drug formulations against MRSA infections and may be used as a natural anti-mutagenic agent in the pharmacology and food industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Organ Damage Markers in Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Pre-treated with Quail Eggs

Patrick Emeka Aba, Casmir Ejiofor Ngwu, Ernest Chukwuamachago Nweze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23210

This study investigated the response of organ damage markers to quail egg pre-treatment on acetaminophen–induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Thirty (30) albino wistar rats assigned to 5 groups of 6 rats each were used for this study. Groups 2-4 rats were orally pre-treated with 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml of quail egg solutions respectively for 7 days. On day 7 post treatment, 2000 mg/kg of acetaminophen (Paracetamol®) was orally administered to rats in groups 2-5. Groups 1 and 5 rats were pre-treated with distilled water (10 ml/kg) to serve as normal and negative controls respectively. Forty eight hours (48 h) post acetaminophen administration, blood samples were collected for biochemical [(total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and unconjugaed bilirubin (UB)] analyses. Results indicated significant (P < 0.05) decrease in BUN values of groups 2-4 rats (Quail egg-pretreated groups) when compared to that of the rats in group 5 (negative control). The total bilirubin values of rats in group 5 (induced untreated group) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of groups 1-3 rats. The conjugated bilirubin levels of rats in group 2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the negative control rats while no significant changes (P > 0.05) were observed in the TP and ALB values across all the groups. It was concluded that pre-treating acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic rats with quail egg, ameliorated organ damage injuries with highest ameliorative effect at 30 mg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Ziziphus mucronata and Erythrina abyssinica Bark Crude Extracts on Cryptococcus neofomans and Candida albicans Species

Tapiwa E. Manyarara, J. Chifamba, Felistas T. Tarugarira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23843

Aims: The study aims at extraction, characterization and identification of bioactive compounds with antifungal properties from the plant species E. abyssinica and Z. mucronata against Cyptococcal neoformans and Candida albicans.

Study Design: Phytochemical screening of crude plant extracts and determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration using Agar disc diffusion method.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutical Technology Lab, Harare Institute of Technology, February 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: In this study crude bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata and Erythrina abyssinica from Zimbabwe were test for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion method against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans with fluconazole as the positive control. Phytochemical screening tests on the crude extracts were carried out to identify phytoconstituents.

Results: Effective minimum inhibitory concentrations against C. albicans were found to be 20% w/v and 10%w/v for Ziziphus mucronata and showed moderate growth at a 5% w/v concentration. Erythrina abyssinica had effective minimum inhibitory concentrations at 25% w/v and 12.5% w/v with moderate fungal growth observed at 6.25% w/v. The same concentration ranges for both crude extracts showed similar antifungal activity for C. neoformans. Both crude bark extracts tested positive for tannins, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids which contribute to the antifungal activity of the plant species.

Conclusion: Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans are the most common fungal species that cause opportunistic infections to occur in HIV and AIDS. The effects produced by these plants have proven that they can be used to develop pharmaceutical agents alleviate the symptoms associated with these infections. The crude plant extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Both crude bark extracts tested positive for tannins, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids which contribute to the antifungal activity of the plant species.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Prospective Materials for Chemoprevention: Three Phlomis

Ahmet Uysal, Erdogan Gunes, Cengiz Sarikurkcu, Handan Celik, Yusuf Durak, Mehmet Cemil Uren

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23963

Aim: Plants are permanent sources of biologically active compounds, used by about 80% of the world population as manufactured drugs. The aims of this paper are to determine the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of methanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts from Phlomis nissoli (PNM, PNE, PNW) Phlomis pungens var. pungens (PPM, PPE, PPW) and Phlomis armeniaca (PAM, PAE, PAW) against well-known mutagens.

Methodology: Mutagenic/antimutagenic activities were determined by Ames test.

Results: Extracts of P. nissoli, P. pungens and P. armeniaca were not mutagenic against TA98 and TA100 in the condition both with and without S9 mix. The strongest antimutagenic action was revealed by PNE extract at a dose of 5000 µg/plate against 2-amino-flourene with 96% inhibition for TA98 with S9 mix. PNM extract alleviated the mutagenic action of 2-amino-anthracene and exhibited strong inhibition rates (93%, 78%, 57%, respectively) with S9 mix at all doses for TA100 strain. While PAE extract manifested 95%, 91% and 84% inhibition against 2-amino-flourene for TA98, it revealed 90%, 84%, and 87% inhibition ratios, respectively, making them as strongly antimutagenic against 2-amino-anthracene for TA100 with S9 mix.

Conclusion: P. nissoli, P. pungens and P. armeniaca extracts have significant antimutagenic capacities and they can represent a good model for the development of new drug formulations in pharmaceutical industry and they could be used in food industry as chemoprevention agent.