Open Access Data Article

Trend of HIV Seropositivity among Children at Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital in North India

Ritu Aggarwal, Priyanka Yadav, Uma Chaudhary, Vipul Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22252

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the burden and trend of HIV sero-positivity among children attending ICTC in a teaching tertiary care hospital.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Methodology: HIV seropositivity among children of age group 18 months- 14 years was determined by serological tests for HIV antibodies among children enrolled in ICTC of a teaching tertiary care hospital from Jan 2011 - Dec 2013 as per NACO guidelines.

Result: Of 2529 children tested for HIV infection, 10.4% were found to be seropositive. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) fall in the seropositivity was observed over the three years study period. In all the three years male children were more seropositive than female children (1.78:1). Most of the children were serodiagnosed late in our study, with mean age of 5.30 years / 63.64 months.

Conclusion: Our study reports a declining trend of sero-positivity (from 13.1% to 9.8%) among children attending ICTC. But the prevalence is still high (>9%) which calls for re-intensified efforts on health education and risk control programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Hopenone-I from the Leaves of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea and Its Cytotoxic Properties

Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon, Nisala Fernando, Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Achyut Adhikari, Lakshan Wijayabandara, E. Dilip de Silva, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23317

Aims: The present study was aimed to isolate active anti proliferative compound/s from the hexane extract of leaves of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F.Gaertn. and evaluate their cytotoxic properties.

Place and Duration of the Study: At the Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, between January 2015 to November 2015.

Methodology: The hexane extract of the leaves of S. hydrophyllacea which was found to be cytotoxic was fractionated using normal phase column chromatography and fractions obtained from column chromatography were tested for anti proliferative effects. Active fractions obtained were further fractionated using normal phase column chromatography to obtain compound 1. Structure of the isolated compound was elucidated with combination of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry techniques. Anti proliferative properties of compound 1 in three cancer cell lines {MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive breast cancer), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and AN3CA (endometrial cancer)} was evaluated by MTT assay after 24 and 48 h incubations.

Results: Isolated compound was found to be hopenone-I, a triterpenoid and this is a novel finding for the presence this compound in the mangrove plant S. hydrophyllacea. Hopenone-I showed some promising anti proliferative effects in all the cancer cells in a time and dose dependent manner after 24 and 48 h incubations {MCF-7: 14.98 µM (24 h) and 7.76 µM (48 h), HepG2: 29.24 µM (24 h) and 11.60 µM (48 h), AN3CA: 12.15 µM (24 h) and 4.99 µM (48 h)}.

Conclusion: Based on the overall results of the present study, we conclude that hopenone-I isolated for the first time from S. hydrophyllacea leaves possess prominent anti proliferative effects in MCF-7, AN3CA and HepG2 cell lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Analysis of Banana Pseudo Stem (Musa acuminata)

C. T. Onyema, C. E. Ofor, V. C. Okudo, A. S. Ogbuagu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22593

Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts of banana pseudo stem and antimicrobial activities revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, protein, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides. The phytochemical constituents were: Alkaloid (8.16%), Flavonoids (4.02%), Saponin (3.5%), Phenols (5.5743 mg/kg, Tannin (9.13%), Oxalate (0.162%), Heamaglutinin (1.8814 mg/kg), Phytate (1.2967 mg/kg), and Cardiac Glycoside (1.6%). Some of the extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens while some did not. Water extract notably had a high Zone Inhibition Diameter of 21 mm to Streptococcus aureus and 17 mm to Pseudomonas aerugenosa. The results obtained indicated that the pseudo stem of banana plant have pharmaceutical values and can be utilized in treatment of some ailments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extracts of Eastern Nigeria Mistletoe, Tapinanthus globiferus (A. Rich.) Tiegh. Modulate Dexamethasone-induced Insulin Resistance and Exhibit Potent osteogenic Activity in Animal Experimental Model

Omeje Edwin Ogechukwu, Mohd Parvez Khan, Osadebe Patience Ogoamaka, Okoye Theophine Chinwuba, Ugwoke Christopher Emeka, Onugwu Lawrence Ekene, Deepshika Tewari, Rakesh Maurya, Naibedya Chattopadhyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22720

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Scientific evidence for the traditional use of eastern Nigeria mistletoe as an anti-diabetic and anti-osteoporotic agent has been documented. In our continued efforts to provide further evidence towards eventual approval of the medicinal usage of the eastern Nigeria mistletoes, the present study was undertaken to evaluate its effects on steroid induced insulin-resistance and in-vivo bone health parameters in rodent model.

Materials and Methods: Twelve-weeks (12) old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes and weighing 200±20 g were administered with dexamethasone (200 mgkg-1) for minimum of 14 days and with or without 100-400 mgkg-1 of crude aqueous extract of mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, in this paper referred to as Kola-mistletoe (KM). The basal glucose levels were established and animals were later exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were collected from ketamine-anesthetized animals via cardiac puncture for measurement of biochemical parameters. The femur and vertebrae bones were neatly excised and stored in 70% isopropanol at 4°C until further analysis. µCT determination of excised bones was carried out using the Sky Scan 1076 µCT scanner (Aartselaar, Belgium) as described in our previously published protocols.

Results: The extracts significantly preserved the animals from the effects of dexamethasone mostly at 400 mg/kg dose in terms of weight loss and blood glycaemia. The extract (either alone or in combination with dexamethasone and within the duration of treatments showed better bone quality (higher BV/TV (Bone volume to Trabecular volume ratio), lower Tb.Sp (Trabecular separation) and SMI (Structure model index) indices at the dose of 400 mg/kg compared with vehicle and metformin groups.

Conclusion: The present data show that the Nigeria mistletoes are potent in reversing the adverse effects of prolonged exposure to dexamethasone in rodents and evidently protected the bones from impairment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Hematological Parameters of Albino Rats Fed on High Dose of whole Wheat

Anaka Ogochukwu Ngozi, Omoti Caroline Edijana, Owolabi Omonkhelin Josephine, O. Innih Silvanus, Nwagwu Chinonye Sophia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21753

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the hematological profile of albino rats fed on whole wheat based on its widespread use. Whole wheat grain (Triticum aestivum) is a cereal regularly consumed and also used for various medicinal purposes.

Study Design: Laboratory based work with the use of rodents.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Haematology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Nigeria, between April 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: In the experiment a total of sixty (60) albino rats were used. The rats were divided into five (5) groups of 12 rats each. Group I served as a control and received distilled water (2 ml/kg), while groups II, III, IV and V were orally administered whole wheat at 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg doses respectively. The administration of wheat and distilled water were done daily while the rats were weighed weekly for 30 days, after which the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected via the abdominal aorta, the plasma was then analyzed for various hematological parameters.

Results: The rats treated with whole wheat had significantly (p<0.05)  increased levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell distribution width when compared to the control group. Though the white blood cells were increased, the values were not significantly different from the control. However the mean corpuscular volume was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the experimental groups.

This result indicates the potentials of wheat as a functional food for therapeutic effect against abnormal hematological changes associated with diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and other CVS problems. Consequently, wheat could serve as an adjunct to dietary therapy especially for diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

Conclusion: In conclusion a hematological protective effect as seen from the increase in the red blood cells and hemoglobin is an excellent discovery from our study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vitamin D Supplements on the Body Weight and Glycaemia in Wistar Rats

Claudia R. P. Detregiachi, Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Karina R. Quesada, Cora L. Brandão, Izabella B. V. Pedroso, Mariane M. Alves

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/23508

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the body weight and glycaemia on Wistar rats.

Study Design: Thirty female rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10) according to: G1 - control group, G2 - group treated with vitamin D (6 mg/kg); G3 - group treated with vitamin D (12 g/kg). The experiment lasted for 14 days and during this period the animals were weighed every two days.

Methodology: On the 15th day the animals were anesthetized and euthanized with overdose of intraperitoneal thiopental and blood samples were collected for determination of glycaemia. To the evaluation of variables, we used the one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. The probability of significance considered was 5% (p < 0.05). The correlation analysis between variables was performed using the Pearson coefficient. The probability of significance considered was 5% (p <0.05) for the operations performed.

Results: Our results show that animals receiving vitamin D supplementation had significantly higher blood glucose levels (G2: 152.2±14.23 md/dL and G3: 212.6±53.23 mg/dL) compared to the control group (144.1±32.02 mg/dL) (p <0.0007). No significant differences were found between the three groups regarding the average of weight gain (p = 0.1466).

Conclusion: Our results show negative effects on the glycaemia and body weight especially with higher doses of vitamin D. We suggest that further studies are necessary to outline the actual effects of the supplementation. Besides, the optimal doses also need to be established.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antitumor Properties of a Metal-free Ligand and Local Herbal Remedy against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced Carcinomas in Albino Mice

A. A. Osowole, A. A. Oni, P. O. Popoola, K. C. Onyegbula, A. T. Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/8177

Aims: We report a pilot study evaluating the antitumor properties of a Schiff base ligand, 3-[2,4-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yl imino)methyl] napthalen-2-ol] and aqueous herbal extract against N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU)-induced carcinomas in albino mice via hematology; and histology of the liver, thymus, spleen and small intestine.

Study Design: Twenty-three male and female mice respectively received a single intra-peritoneal dose of 60 mg/kg MNU. Seven males and seven females served as controls.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; January-July 2012.

Methodology: Five months post-induction, four induced males and four females of surviving mice were given a single intra-peritoneal dose (25 mg/kg) of ligand; three induced males and three females served as negative control. Three induced mice of both sexes respectively received daily doses of 136 mg/mL extract orally at an innoculation volume of 0.3 mL/mouse for 30 days (total dosage= 4.08 g/30 ml;) and monitored for two months. Depending on mortality, 1-3 mice/group were sacrificed at experiment termination and subsequently processed for hematology and histology.

Results: Tumor incidence was 13% (male) and 17% (female) respectively. There was no significant difference (P= .05) between hematology of control and statistically comparable experimental groups. Histology of control organs showed no abnormal features. Hepatocytes of ligand-treated mice showed cytoplasmic disintegration and presence of pleomorphic nuclei; while the extract-treated group showed progressive reversal towards normal with hepatocytic regeneration, fairly uniformly-shaped nuclei and bi-nucleate cells. Spleen of the ligand-treated group showed moderate lymphoid depletion, while the extract-treated group showed a regeneration of the central artery and red pulp with no visible lesion. The extract-treated thymus showed a gradual reversal of some of its Hassall’s corpuscles. The small intestine of the ligand-treated mice showed gross erosion of the intestinal villi; while intestinal mucosa regeneration was observed in the extract-treated group.

Conclusion: The herbal extract may possess some antitumor properties, thus necessitating further investigations, while the ligand showed little or no activity in vivo.