Open Access Short Research Article

Pharmaceutical Quality Analysis of Ceftriaxone Sodium Brands Marketed in Southern Nigeria

Ogbonna Okorie, E. Omotoso Abayomi, Ebinyansi Onyinyechi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/19577

One of the paramount controversies between Physicians and Pharmacists is the issue of generic substitution. Prescribers are compelled to choose from such a large range of brands. The objective of this study was to compare the Pharmaceutical quality of innovator brand of injectable Ceftriaxone sodium with its generic brands that are marketed in Southern Nigeria. Seven brands of injectable Ceftriaxone sodium marketed in some pharmacies in Southern Nigeria were analysed. Standard physical and chemical tests for quality control of parenterals approved by the British Pharmacopoeia were performed on the branded sampled. The tested brands complied with the BP specifications for quality of Parenterals. Although one of the generic brands has content weight of Ceftriaxone greater than the upper limit specified (127.906%). The brands of Ceftriaxone sodium tested have been proven to be pharmaceutically and therapeutically equivalent. Though, there are variations among these brands due to the different manufacturing processes and formulation factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Phytochemical Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from the Seeds of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Clusiaceae)

A. M. Zakariya, U. H. Danmalam, A. Nuhu, A. B. Sallau, S. Shehu, S. M. Hassan, G. Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22118

Aim: This study was carried out with the aim of isolating and identifying the bioactive constituents of the ethyl acetate extract from G. kola seeds that was a strong inhibitor of α-glucosidase using FT-IR and GC-MS techniques.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between October – December 2014.

Methodology: n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared gradient wise in a soxhlet apparatus at 50ºC. Column chromatographic analysis was carried out on the ethyl acetate extract. The isolate was purified and the structure elucidated by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Mass Spectrophotometry.

Results: Column chromatographic analyses and purification of column fraction B of the ethyl acetate extract lead to the isolation of ZAAK. Fourier Transformed-Infra Red spectra revealed the presence of carboxylic acid and an ester in ZAAK. Gas Chromatography revealed three major peaks with retention times at 17.99 min, 20.83 min and 21.08 min, thus suggesting that ZAAK is a mixture of three compounds and were subsequently labeled ZAAK1, ZAAK2, and ZAAK3. The mass spectra identified ZAAK1 ZAAK2 and ZAAK3 as 1-pentadecanecarboxylic acid, (Z)-11-Octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethyl ester respectively.

Conclusion: On the basis of column chromatography and spectroscopy, ZAAK was identified as a mixture of fatty acids and fatty acid ester.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anticancer Activity of Hibiscus vitifolius Flowers Ethyl Acetate Fraction against Hepg2 Cell Line

D. Prabhakaran, A. Rajeshkanna, M. M. Senthamilselvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/20360

Objective: The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (Malavaceae) are used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate anticancer activity of the flowers of Hibiscus vitifolius against Liver Cancer cell Line (HepG2).

Materials and Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity activity was carried out to screen cytotoxicity potency of the ethyl acetate fraction from Hibiscus vitifolius flower extract at different concentrations against HepG2 cell line. The MTT (methylthiazolyl diphenyl- tetrazolium bromide) assay for cell viability and markers is predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity.

Results: The ethyl acetate fraction from the flower extract of Hibiscus vitifolius was tested for its anticancer activity against HepG2 cell lines (liver cancer) at various concentrations by MTT assay. It was confirmed that the IC50 value of this sample was 150 µg/ml against Liver Cancer HepG2 cell line.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the flower EtOH extracts of Hibiscus vitifolius have the potent anticancer activity and thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Effectiveness of Adding Phenobarbitone to Conventional Therapy in Preterm Neonates with Unconjugated Hyperbiliurubinemia in Comparison with Conventional Therapy

M. Saipriya, D. Vidhyadhari, G. Gowtham, Ranakishore Pelluri, P. Yashodhara, Nadendla Ramarao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22174

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of adding prophylactic phenobarbitone to conventional therapy in preterm neonatal jaundice in reducing the incidence, peak serum bilirubin levels, duration and need of Phototherapy in the treatment and time taken for complete clearance of jaundice.

Background: Neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a life threatening. The conventional therapy is a long time process & some of neonate cannot tolerate for long-term phototherapy. Adding of phenobarbitone to the conventional therapy gives better results. 

Study Design: A prospective observational study in comparison with retrospective data & it was conducted in the 6 months period i.e., from February 2015 to July 2015 at GGH guntur.

Methodology: In our study a 50 patients of both sex under prospective group to whom oral phenobarbitone was given 3 mg/kg/day and 50 patient case sheets data was analyzed under retrospective group. Preterm neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit with body weight >1 kg were included in the study and neonates who are on ventilator and birth weight <1kg were excluded from the study. Effectiveness of phenobarbitone was assessed by comparing prospective group with retrospective group using paired t-test in SPSS software.

Results and Discussion: Peak total serum bilirubine values, Duration of phototherapy, Duration of hospital stay were less in prospective group as compare with retrospective group were statistically significant. Peak TSB value was observed earlier in prospective group than in retrospective group and there was no requirement of exchange transfusion in prospective group. There was no requirement of phototherapy in 18 out of 50 neonates in prospective group.

Conclusion: We conclude that prophylactic oral phenobarbitone dose of 3 mg/kg/day ± phototherapy is effective in healthy preterm neonates in the treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and the beneficial affect was more in Low birth weight neonates than in very low birth weight neonates as compare with phototherapy alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Turnera ulmifolia (Yellow Alder) Callus

K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai, R. Prabakaran, P. Subramaniam, Y. Sarmila Juliet

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/21920

Aim: The current work aims to study the effect of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Turnera ulmifolia callus on antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

Study Design: The Five grams of leaf derived 30 days old callus powder was soaked in 10 ml of ethanol and methanol overnight and then filtered through Whatman filter paper No. 41 along with 2 gms sodium sulphate to remove the sediments and traces of water in the filtrate. Before filing the filter paper along with sodium sulphate is wetted with ethanol. The filtrate was then concentrated by bubbling nitrogen gas in to solution and reduces the volume to one ml.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant Tissue Culture Division, PG and Research Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore-641018, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: Ethanolic and methanolic callus extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antioxidant (DPPH & FRAP) and anticancer activities (MTT assay).

Results: The ethanolic and methanolic callus extracts of Turnera ulmifolia showed rich sources of antimicrobial, antioxidants, anticancer and can be incorporated into the drug formulations.

Conclusion: This study conformed the use of callus instead of wild plant for herbal medicine. Further studies are needed for isolation and identification of compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Cyathula prostata (Linn.) Blume Weeds on Adult Rats

S. O. Ogbonnia, G. O. Mbaka, O. E. Akinsande, D. A. Otah, T. A. Ayeni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/20433

Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating the acute toxicity and hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Cyathula prostata plant used locally in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes.

Materials and Methods: The toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by feeding the animals with the graded doses of the extract between 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight (bwt) and continuously observed for the first 4 h, then hourly for the next 12 hand 6 hourly for the next 56 h (72 h, acute toxicity). Diabetes was induced in the male and female Wistar rats with alloxan monohydrate, at the dose of 150 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline and administered intraperitoneally (i.p). The plasma glucose levels of the induced animals were monitored with a Glucometer (MERCK) after 72 h. The animals with plasma glucose level ≥200 mg/dl were classified as diabetic and were included in the study. The diabetic animals were randomly distributed into five groups of 5 animals each. The first group was normal not treated but received acacia 2% w/v solution. The second group was induced but not treated while the remaining four groups were treated with the reference drug, glibenclamide, (600 µg-1 kg bwt)/ the extract in graded doses of 75, 150 and 250 mg/kg bwt respectively for 30 days.

Results: The animals that received 20 g/kg bwt of the extract survived beyond 24 hrs, therefore the LD50 could be assumed to be above 20 g -1 kg bwt. The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was found to have significantly (p≤0.05) increased in the extract treated compared to the negative control whereas aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level showed marked decrease with dose. However, hepatic tissue histology at the highest extract dose treatment showed mild portal hepatitis with hepatocytes vacuolization and sinusoidal congestion. There were no significant changes (p≥0.05) in protein and creatinine levels. There were significant (p≤0.05) reduction in the plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels while a significant increase in HDL levels was observed. The tissue histology of pancreas showed significant survivor of beta cells in the extract treated groups.

Conclusion: The extract was observed to have beneficial effect on alloxan-damaged pancreas as beta cells showed signs of recovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental and Kinetic Studies on Penicillin G Adsorption by Lemna minor

Davoud Balarak, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Ali Joghataei

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2016/22820

This study examined the ability of dried duckweed (Lemna minor) to remove soluble Penicillin G from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pH, contact time, initial Penicillin G concentration, biomass dose and temperature on penicillin G adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacity of the duckweed was 36.18 mg g-1 when 94.6% of the Penicillin G was removed. The adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and BET isotherm models. It was found that he data fitted to Langmuir better than isotherm other models. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The adsorption capacity of penicillin G increased from 31.11 to 41.82 mg/g with increasing the temperature from 20 to 50, indicating that the process is endothermic. According to achieved results, it was defined that Lemna minor not only was an inexpensive absorbent, but also a quite effective factor in removal of Penicillin G from water and wastewater.