Perspective of Pneumonia in the Health-Care Setting

Waad Abdulaziz Sabbagh

Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine Department, Dr. Samir Abbas Hospital, Jeddah, SAU/Saudi Arabia.

Hani Raka Karrar *

Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. Samir Abbas Hospital, Jeddah, Alazhar University, SAU.

Mahmoud Ismail Nouh

Pharmaceutical Care, Medicine Department, Dr. Samir Abbas Hospital, Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, SAU.

Nouran M. Alkhaifi

Medicine and Surgery, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

Samar Y. Badayyan

Medicine and Surgery, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

Lamer K. Shaikh

Medicine and Surgery, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

Nourah A. Al Ghamdi

Medicine and Surgery, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

Fai F. Abdullah

Medicine and Surgery, Fakeeh College for Medical Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Pneumonia is a major worldwide health issue, impacting millions of individuals annually and leading to a significant number of hospitalizations and fatalities. Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children globally, responsible for almost 15% of all fatalities in children under 5 years old, as stated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Pneumonia is a prominent reason for hospitalization in the United States, resulting in around 1.5 million hospital admissions annually. Pneumonia is most prevalent in the elderly population, especially those who are 65 years old and above, and persons with preexisting medical disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diabetes, or a compromised immune system. Pneumonia can vary in severity, ranging from a minor case that can be managed at home to a severe and life-threatening infection that necessitates hospitalization and intense medical care. The symptoms and severity of pneumonia might vary based on the underlying cause, the individual's age and overall health status, and other factors. Pneumonia is a severe respiratory infection that can be caused by several pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and unusual microorganisms. It is defined by the presence of inflammation in the alveoli, which are the small air sacs in the lungs responsible for gas exchange. This inflammation can result in the buildup of fluid or pus, which can hinder the lungs' functionality and impede the body's capacity to obtain sufficient oxygen. The significant burden of pneumonia globally, especially on vulnerable populations like children and the elderly, underscores the need for improved prevention, early detection, and effective treatment strategies. The range in severity highlights the importance of timely and appropriate medical care, as well as the need for patient education on recognizing and seeking treatment for pneumonia. Understanding the diverse etiologies and risk factors for pneumonia can inform the development of targeted interventions and public health measures to reduce the impact of this major respiratory illness.

Keywords: Pneumonia, health-care setting, perspective


How to Cite

Sabbagh, W. A., Karrar, H. R., Nouh, M. I., Alkhaifi, N. M., Badayyan, S. Y., Shaikh, L. K., Ghamdi, N. A. A. and Abdullah, F. F. (2024) “Perspective of Pneumonia in the Health-Care Setting”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 36(7), pp. 51–58. doi: 10.9734/jpri/2024/v36i77538.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Funk GC, Nell C, Pokieser W, Thaler B, Rainer G, Valipour A. Organizing pneumonia following Covid19 pneumonia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2021;133:979-982. DOI:10.1007/s00508-021-01852-9

Geppert EF: Chronic and recurrent pneumonia. Semin Respir Infect. 1992;7:282-288.

Hooven TA, Polin RA: Pneumonia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017;22:206-213. DOI:10.1016/j.siny.2017.03.002

Leedom JM. Pneumonia. Patient profiles, choice of empiric therapy, and the place of third-generation cephalosporins. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;15:57-65. DOI:10.1016/0732-8893(92)90057-

Orens JB, Sitrin RG, Lynch JP, 3rd. The approach to nonresolving pneumonia. Med Clin North Am. 1994;78:1143-1172. DOI:10.1016/s0025-7125(16)30124-9

Panciera RJ, Confer AW. Pathogenesis and pathology of bovine pneumonia. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:191-214. DOI:10.1016/j.cvfa.2010.04.001

Singh V, Aneja S. Pneumonia - management in the developing world. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2011;12:52-59. DOI:10.1016/j.prrv.2010.09.011

Torres A, Cilloniz C, Niederman MS, et al. Pneumonia. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021;7:25. DOI:10.1038/s41572-021-00259-0

Anandan L, Carasco C, Mori L, Margaritopoulos GA: What you need to know about: Organising pneumonia. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2022;83:1-8. DOI:10.12968/hmed.2021.0451

Heath PT. Epidemiology and bacteriology of bacterial pneumonias. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2000;1:4-7. DOI:10.1053/prrv.2000.0001

Mayaud C, Parrot A, Houacine S, Denis M, Akoun G. [Epidemiology of micro-organisms responsible for community-acquired pneumonia]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 1992;48:101-110.

Roselle GA, Danko LH, Kralovic SM, Simbartl LA, Hilley J, Tryhus P. A six-year epidemiologic review of pneumonia in Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Mil Med. 1999;164:293-297.

Segreti J, Bone RC. Overwhelming pneumonia. Dis Mon. 1987;33: 1-59.

Wang Y, Ma L, Li Y, Li Y, Zheng Y, Zhang X. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pathogens positive in hospitalized children with segmental/lobar pattern pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis. 2020

;20:205. DOI:10.1186/s12879-020-4938-7

Carden DL, Gibb KA. Pneumonia and lung abscess. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1983;1:345-370.

Nissen MD. Congenital and neonatal pneumonia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2007;8:195-203. DOI:10.1016/j.prrv.2007.07.001

Schleupner CJ, Cobb DK. A study of the etiologies and treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in a community-based teaching hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1992;13:515-525. DOI:10.1086/646591

Jain V, Vashisht R, Yilmaz G, Bhardwaj A: Pneumonia Pathology. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: Rishik Vashisht declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Gizem Yilmaz declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Abhishek Bhardwaj declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Troillet N, Francioli P. [Pneumonia in patients with mechanical ventilation: physiopathology and prevention]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1994;124:236-240.

Abdulhadi B, Kiel J. Mycoplasma Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing

Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: John Kiel declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Arenas-Jiménez JJ, García-Garrigós E, Ureña Vacas A, Sirera Matilla M, Feliu Rey E. Organizing pneumonia. Radiologia (Engl Ed). 2022;64(Suppl3):240-249. DOI:10.1016/j.rxeng.2022.08.002

Ashurst JV, Dawson A: Klebsiella Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: Adam Dawson declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Gautam J, Krawiec C: Chlamydia Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: Conrad Krawiec declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Niederman MS, Cilloniz C: Aspiration pneumonia. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2022;35(Suppl 1):73-77. DOI:10.37201/req/s01.17.2022

Pahal P, Penmetsa GK, Modi P, Sharma S: Eosinophilic Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: Gopi Penmetsa declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Pranav Modi declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Sandeep Sharma declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Ruuskanen O, Lahti E, Jennings LC, Murdoch DR. Viral pneumonia. Lancet. 2011;377:1264-1275. DOI:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)61459-6

Sattar SBA, Nguyen AD, Sharma S: Bacterial Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Andrew Nguyen declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Sandeep Sharma declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Shebl E, Gulick PG: Nosocomial Pneumonia. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC., Treasure Island (FL) ineligible companies. Disclosure: Peter Gulick declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.; 2024.

Thomas CF, Jr., Limper AH. Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2487-2498. DOI:10.1056/NEJMra032588

Carden DL, Smith JK. Pneumonias. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1989;7:255-278.

Fels AO. Bacterial and fungal pneumonias. Clin Chest Med. 1988, 9:449-457.

Lechartier B, Prella M, Manuel O, Nicod LP: [How to handle a non-resolving pneumonia?]. Rev Med Suisse. 2016; 12:1942-1947.

Miyashita N. Atypical pneumonia: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Respir Investig. 2022;60:56-67. DOI:10.1016/j.resinv.2021.09.009

Rodnick JE, Gude JK: Diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. West J Med. 1991;154:405-409.

Speich R, Ruef C, Russi EW. [Diagnosis and therapy of community-acquired pneumonia]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1993;123:1846-1856.

Mayer KH, Hochreiter K: [Community-acquired pneumonia]. Acta Med Austriaca. 1993, 20:124-126.

Meyer RD, Finch RG: Community-acquired pneumonia. J Hosp Infect. 1992, (22 Suppl A):51-59. DOI:10.1016/s0195-6701(05)80007-6

Seeger A, Rohde G. [Community-acquired pneumonia]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2023, 148:335-341. DOI:10.1055/a-1940-8944

Hospital-acquired pneumonias. Semin Respir Infect. 1987;2:1-81.

Jakubec P, Křenková A, Kolek V. [Hospital-acquired pneumonias]. Vnitr Lek. 2018;63:776-785.

Komiya K, Ishii H, Kadota J. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia. Aging Dis. 2015;6:27-37. DOI:10.14336/ad.2014.0127

Clausen CL, Benfield T. [Viral pneumonia in immunocompetent adults]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2021;183.

Latham-Sadler BA, Morell VW: Viral and atypical pneumonias. Prim Care. 1996;23:837-848. DOI:10.1016/s0095-4543(05)70365-1

Reimann HA: Viral pneumonias. J Am Med Assoc. 1956;161:1078-1079. DOI:10.1001/jama.1956.02970110044012

Sinaniotis CA: Viral pneumoniae in children: incidence and aetiology. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2004;(5 Suppl A):S197-200. DOI:10.1016/s1526-0542(04)90037-1

Davies SF: Fungal pneumonia. Med Clin North Am. 1994;78:1049-1065. DOI:10.1016/s0025-7125(16)30119-5

Cambell-Taylor I. Aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1869; author reply 1869-1870.

Ebihara S, Miyagi M, Otsubo Y, Sekiya H, Ebihara T. Aspiration pneumonia: A key concept in pneumonia treatment. Intern Med. 2021;60:1329-1330. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.6576-20

Pennza PT. Aspiration pneumonia, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1989;7:279-307.

Crnich CJ, Safdar N, Maki DG. The role of the intensive care unit environment in the pathogenesis and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir Care. 2005;50:813-836; discussion 836-818.

Crouch TW, Higuchi JH, Coalson JJ, Johanson WG, Jr. Pathogenesis and prevention of nosocomial pneumonia in a nonhuman primate model of acute respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984;130:502-504. DOI:10.1164/arrd.1984.130.3.502

Irigaray R, Dorca J: [Atypical pneumonias]. Arch Bronconeumol. 1996;32:187-195. DOI:10.1016/s0300-2896(15)30785-7

Mathewson HS: Preventing posttraumatic pneumonia. Crna. 1995;6:114-117.

Vila-Corcoles A, Ansa X, Ochoa-Gondar O, Satue E, de Diego C, Rodriguez-Blanco T: Pneumococcal pneumonia in adults 60 years or older: Incidence, mortality and prevention. Med Clin (Barc). 2016;146:199-202. DOI:10.1016/j.medcli.2015.09.015

Hayden LP, Hobbs BD, Cohen RT, Wise RA, Checkley W, Crapo JD, Hersh CP, COPDGene Investigators. Childhood pneumonia increases risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the COPDGene study. Respiratory Research. 2015;16:1-9.