Causes and Therapy of Depression Posing Risk to Alzheimer's: A Comprehensive Review

N.V.L. Suvarchala Reddy V *

Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

M. Ganga Raju

Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

P. Shrivani

Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

D. Pushyami Sudha

Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

P. Anusha

Department of Pharmacology, Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Depression is a complex mental disorder that not only affects mood but also poses a significant risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Key findings unravel a bilateral relationship where depression not only emerges as a precursor but also as a consequence of Alzheimer's pathology, thereby creating a vicious cycle that exacerbates the cognitive decay. The review article traverses the landscape of both disorders, elucidating the pathological and biochemical links that interlace their neuropathological signatures. It further reviews the current landscape of treatment modalities and management strategies, positioning non-pharmacological interventions like lifestyle modifications and cognitive therapies at the forefront, alongside conventional pharmacotherapy. A novel angle is provided by the exploration of herbal plants used in treatment, gauging their efficacy and potential as alternative or adjunct therapies. Recent advancements in the therapeutic domain, such as personalized medicine and innovative drug targets, are also highlighted, offering a roadmap for translational research and clinical practice.

Keywords: Depression, Alzheimer's disease, pro-inflammatory cytokines, antidepressant therapy, monoaminergic nuclei


How to Cite

N.V.L. Suvarchala Reddy V, Raju , M. G., Shrivani , P., Sudha , D. P. and Anusha , P. (2024) “Causes and Therapy of Depression Posing Risk to Alzheimer’s: A Comprehensive Review”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 36(6), pp. 1–20. doi: 10.9734/jpri/2024/v36i67518.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Lyketsos CG, & Olin J. Depression in Alzheimer’s disease: Overview and treatment. Biological Psychiatry. 2002;52:243–252.

Padovani A, Antonini A, Barone P, Bellelli G, Fagiolini A, Strambi LF, Sorbi S, Stocchi F. Exploring depression in Alzheimer’s disease: an Italian Delphi Consensus on phenomenology, diagnosis, and management. Neurological Sciences. 2023;44:4323–4332.

Kasahara H, Tsumura M, Ochiai Y, Furukawa H, Aoki K, Ito T, et al. Consideration of the relationship between depression and dementia. Psychogeriatrics. 2006;6:128–33.

Ownby RL, Crocco E, Acevedo A, John V, Loewenstein D. Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta regression analysis. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2006;63: 530–538.

Kessing LV. Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder. Psychol. Med. 1998; 28:1027–1038.

Houde M, Bergman H, Whitehead V, Chertkow H. A predictive depression pattern in mild cognitive impairment. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychopharmacol. 2008; 23:1028–1033.

Modrego PJ, Ferrández, J. Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment increases the risk of developing dementia of Alzheimer type: a prospective cohort study. Arch. Neurol.2004; 61:1290–1293.

Caraci F, Copani A, Nicoletti F, Drago F. Depression and Alzheimer's disease: Neurobiological links and common pharmacological targets, European Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 626:64–71.

Wuwongse S, Chuen-Chung Changb R, Andrew C.K. Lawa. The putative neurodegenerative links between depression and Alzheimer’s disease, Progress in Neurobiology. 2010;91:362–375.

Suranyi-Cadotte BE, Gauthier S, Lafaille F, De Flores S, Dam TV, Nair NP, Quirion R. Platelet 3H-imipramine binding distinguishes depression from Alzheimer dementia. Life Sci; 1985: 37: 2305–2311.

Khundakar AA, Thomas AJ. Neuropathology of depression in Alzheimer's disease: Current knowledge and the potential for new treatments. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;44(1):27-41.

12. Chi S, Yu JT, Tan MS, Tan L. Depression in Alzheimer's disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and management. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 42(3):739-55.

Kostas T, Siarkos Everina A, Katirtzoglou and Antonios M, Politis, A Review of Pharmacological Treatments for Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2015; 48:15–34.

Mahrous R, Ghareeb DA, Fathy HM, EL Khair RMA, Omar AA. The protective effect of Egyptian Withania somnifera against Alzheimer’s. Med. Aromat Plants. 2017; 6: 2167-0412.

Nie L, Xia J, Li H, Zhang Z, Yang Y, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 amelio rates behavioral abnormalities and modulates the hippocampal proteomic change in triple transgenic mice of Alzheimer’s disease. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2017; 2017.

Gharibi A, Khalili M, Kiasalari Z, Hoseinirad M. The effect of Zingiber officinalis L. on learning and memory in rats. J Bas Clin Pathophysiol. 2013; 2: 2013-2014.

Farokhnia M, Shafiee Sabet M, Iranpour N, Gougol A, Yekehtaz H, et al. Comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L with memantine in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease: A double blind randomized clinical trial. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 2014;29:351-359. by ovariectomy in mice.

Shi C, Liu J, Wu F, Yew DT. Ginkgo biloba extract in Alzheimer’s disease: From action mechanisms to medical practice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11: 107-123.

Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, et al. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid β oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005; 280: 5892-5901.

Abdul Manap AS, Vijayabalan S, Madhavan P, Chia YY, Arya A, et al. Bacopa monnieri, a neuroprotective lead in Alzheimer disease: A review on its properties, mechanisms of action, and preclinical and clinical studies. Drug target insights. 2019;13:11773928-19866412.

Beheshti S, Shahmoradi B. Therapeutic effect of Melissa officinalis in an amyloid-β rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Herb med Pharmacology. 2018; 7.

Xuan TD, Fukuta M, Wei AC, Elzaawely AA, Khanh TD and Tawata S. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots. J Nat Med 2008; 62(2): 188-194.

Livingston G, Johnston K, Katona CL, Paton J, & Lyketsos CG. Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005; 162: 1996–2021.

Callahan CM, Boustani MA, Unverzagt FW, Austrom MG, Damush TM, Perkins AJ, et al. Effectiveness of collaborative care for older adults with Alzheimer disease in primary care: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 295: 2148–2157.

Rao V, & Lyketsos CG.The benefits and risks of ECT for patients with primary dementia who also suffer from depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2000;15: 729–735.

Padovani A, Caratozzolo S, Benussi A, Galli A, Rozzini L, Cosseddu M, Turrone R, Pilotto A. Vortioxetine Treatment for Depression in Patients with Prodromal vs Mild Alzheimer’s Disease: A Six-Month, Open-Label, Observational Study. J Prev Alz Dis. 2024; 2(11): 375-381.

Ting B, Chen DTL, Hsu WT, Tsai CL, Malau IA, Lee SL, Jingling L. Multifaceted Music Therapy for Depression in Dementia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024;14: 351–367.

Kenneth NK Fong, Xiang yang Ge, KH Ting, Minchen Wei, and Hilda Cheung. The Effects of Light Therapy on Sleep, Agitation and Depression in People with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias. 2023;38: 1–11.

Chang YY, Ting B, Chen DTL, Hsu WT, Lin SC, Kuo CY, Wang MF. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in the Elderly and Patients with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare. 2024;12:536.

Shen Ning, Mehdi Jorfi, Shaun R Patel, Doo Yeon Kim, and Rudolph E Tanzi. Neurotechnological Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Neurosci. 2022;16: 854-992.