Oxidative Stress and Diabetes Mellitus: Unravelling the Intricate Connection: A Comprehensive Review

Nadeem Rais *

Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305004, India.

Akash Ved

Faculty of Pharmacy, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226031, India.

Rizwan Ahmad

Department of Pharmacy, Vivek College of Technical Education, Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh 246701, India.

Aashna Parveen

Faculty of Applied Science, Bhagwant Global University, Kotdwar, Uttarakhand 246149, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is often associated with oxidative stress (OS), which is defined as an imbalance between the body's antioxidant defense systems and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). OS serves as a crucial factor in the intricate relationship between DM and cellular dysfunction, influencing the generation of ROS and subsequent DM complications such as retinopathy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, encephalopathy, and peripheral arteriopathy.

Objective: This comprehensive review aims to elucidate the complex interplay between OS and DM, providing a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and highlighting emerging therapeutic interventions for the management of OS-related complications in DM. It also explores novel antioxidant-based therapies aiming at specific OS markers and developing personalized interventions, which represents a promising avenue for enhancing treatment efficacy in DM.

Method: The search was conducted on scientific databases and web portals such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, EBSCO, DOAJ, etc.

Conclusion: In conclusion, OS and DM are related through a dynamic and intricate interaction involving genetic, molecular, and environmental variables. Interdisciplinary approaches hold the potential to uncover novel biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and oriented therapeutic interventions, thereby revolutionizing the clinical management of DM-related complications. With research continuing to advance and customized treatments being more widely incorporated into clinical practice, there is hope that the impact of OS-related DM complications will be significantly mitigated in the future. Despite notable progress, certain unexplored facets necessitate deeper investigations into the precise mechanisms through which OS exacerbates the progression of DM.

Keywords: Oxidative stress, diabetes mellitus, reactive oxygen species, insulin resistance, diabetic complications


How to Cite

Rais , N., Ved , A., Ahmad , R. and Parveen , A. (2024) “Oxidative Stress and Diabetes Mellitus: Unravelling the Intricate Connection: A Comprehensive Review”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 36(1), pp. 13–30. doi: 10.9734/jpri/2024/v36i17493.

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