Role and Complication of Existing and Newer Calcium Channel Blockers in Hypertension Treatment
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 54A,
Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and early death worldwide. Early and prompt management of hypertension can significantly prevent complications. Owing to the extensive usage of antihypertensive drugs, worldwide mean blood pressure has stayed constant or declined to some extent during the previous four decades although high prevalence in reported in developing countries. CCBs are a class of drugs that are commonly used to lower blood pressure and are structurally and functionally diverse. They are generally well accepted and have less adverse effects. The purpose of this research is to review the available information about role and complication of existing and newer CCBs in hypertension treatment. As soon as CCBs were utilized to treat hypertension, they earned a reputation as potent antihypertensives that significantly and consistently lowered blood pressure in people of all ages and races in mono and combination therapy. CCBs work by reducing peripheral vascular resistance. Newly available CCBs may be therapeutically more effective in treatment of hypertensive individuals with chronic kidney disease than the L-type CCB. Lercanidipine is a third generation CCB that has fewer side effects and is used in people with a high risk of target organ damage and elderly patients. CCBs are associated with certain side effects including peripheral edema, hypotension, headaches, conduction abnormalities among various others. Some studies have also associated use of CCBs with modest risk increase for myocardial infarction and heart failure. Further clinical research is required to elaborately study the efficacy of CCBs in management of hypertension.
- side effects
- blood pressure
- calcium channel blocker
How to Cite
Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redón J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, et al. ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Journal of hypertension. 2013; 31(7):1281-357.
James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). Jama. 2014;311(5):507-20.
Elliott WJ, Ram CV. Calcium channel blockers. Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn). 2011;13(9):687-9.
Abernethy DR, Schwartz JB. Calcium-antagonist drugs. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341(19):1447-57.
Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, Mann S, Lindholm LH, Kenerson JG, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn). 2014;16(1):14- 26.
Volpe M, Rosei EA, Ambrosioni E, Cottone S, Cuspidi C, Borghi C, et al. 2012 consensus document of the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA): strategies to improve blood pressure control in Italy: from global cardiovascular risk stratification to combination therapy. High blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention : The Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension. 2013;20(1):45-52.
Chapman N, Dobson J, Wilson S, Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Wedel H, et al. Effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex : 1979). 2007; 49(4):839-45.
Václavík J, Sedlák R, Plachy M, Navrátil K, Plásek J, Jarkovsky J, et al. Addition of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (ASPIRANT): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex : 1979). 2011;57(6):1069-75.
Russell RP. Side effects of calcium channel blockers. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex : 1979). 1988;11(3 Pt 2):Ii42-4.
Tocci G, Battistoni A, Passerini J, Musumeci MB, Francia P, Ferrucci A, et al. Calcium channel blockers and hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2015;20(2):121-30.
Medarov BI, Judson MA. The role of calcium channel blockers for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: How much do we actually know and how could they be positioned today? Respiratory Medicine. 2015;109(5):557-64.
Puscas L, Gilau L, Coltau M, Pasca R, Domuta G, Baican M, et al. Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure in part by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 2000;14(5): 523-8.
Caballero-Gonzalez FJ. Calcium channel blockers in the management of hypertension in the elderly. Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2015;12(3):160-5.
Lin Y, Ma L. Blood pressure lowering effect of calcium channel blockers on perioperative hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(48):e13152.
Chi C, Tai C, Bai B, Yu S, Karamanou M, Wang J, et al. Angiotensin system blockade combined with calcium channel blockers is superior to other combinations in cardiovascular protection with similar blood pressure reduction: A meta-analysis in 20,451 hypertensive patients. Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn). 2016;18(8):801-8.
Burnier M, Pruijm M, Wuerzner G. Treatment of essential hypertension with calcium channel blockers: what is the place of lercanidipine? Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. 2009; 5(8):981-7.
Tamargo J, Ruilope LM. Investigational calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2016;25(11):1295-309.
Thamcharoen N, Susantitaphong P, Wongrakpanich S, Chongsathidkiet P, Tantrachoti P, Pitukweerakul S, et al. Effect of N- and T-type calcium channel blocker on proteinuria, blood pressure and kidney function in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis. Hypertension Research : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. 2015;38(12):847-55.
Koshy S, Bakris GL. Therapeutic approaches to achieve desired blood pressure goals: focus on calcium channel blockers. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 2000;14(3):295-301.
Mancia G, Tsioufis K. Current perspective on the use of calcium channel blockers to treat hypertensive patients: the role of lercanidipine. Future Cardiology. 2019; 15(4):259-66.
Izzo JL, Jr. Calcium channel blockers in hypertension. Is there still a controversy? Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2005;17(4 Suppl):1-5.
Zhu J, Chen N, Zhou M, Guo J, Zhu C, Zhou J, et al. Calcium channel blockers versus other classes of drugs for hypertension. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;10(10): Cd003654.
Hedner T. Calcium channel blockers: spectrum of side effects and drug interactions. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1986;58 Suppl 2:119-30.
Muntwyler J, Follath F. Calcium channel blockers in treatment of hypertension. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2001;44(3):207-16.
Shields DL. Calcium channel blockers as initial therapeutic agents in hypertension: relationship to incident heart failure. Biological Research for Nursing. 2014; 16(3):266-77.
Abstract View: 266 times
PDF Download: 127 times