Open Access Short Communication

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of the Nigerian Leech (Aliolimnatis michaelseni) Saliva Extract

I. C. J. Omalu, E. C. Egwim, C. C. Mgbemena, S. S. Eke, D. Ubanwa, M. B. Busari, P. C. Ossai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19911

Introduction: Antioxidant is a substance that is capable of restricting or frustrating the oxidation of other oxidizable molecules by suppressing the free radical- caused oxidation chain reaction. They occur naturally in the body or can be obtained from external (Exogenous) sources such as plants and animal products. Laboratory experimental studies using these exogenous sources have shown that they can prevent free radical damage associated with development of cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and other life threatening diseases.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging activity of Nigeria Leech (Aliolimnatis michaelseni) saliva extract (LSE).

Place and Duration of Study: Leech samples were collected from fresh water ponds in Nasarawa State Nigeria between June and December 2014.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity of the salivary gland secretion was determined using DPPH free radical scavenging activity method.    

Results: Results showed that Leech saliva extract expressed a free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 8.169 ug/ml initially and 8.67 ug/ml after starvation for 1 month compared with 5.025 ug/ml of L-ascorbic acid as a positive control.                                       

Conclusion: Therefore, this study revealed that the proteomic contents of LSE are promising natural antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modification of Starch Extracted from Cassava with Acidified Ethanol

Ogunmolasuyi A. Martin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16303

Aim: The aim of this study was to chemically modify the starch extracted from Manihot esculentus with an objective of gaining insight into the structure and architecture of the native and modified starch.

Study Design: Experimental.

Methodology: Starch from tubers of cassava (M. esculentus) was extracted and chemically modified using a 95% ethanol solution containing 20% HCl at 50°C for 1-4 hours. Structural changes in the native starch and its derivatives were evaluated using colorimeter on treatment with Iodine-KI solution, and the absorbance read at wavelength (λ=470 nm). The gelatinization temperature of the starch was also determined.

Results and Discussion: From the result, absorbance of the acidified ethanol modified starch decreased per hour after treatment with Iodine solution while the weight of recovered derivatives went accordingly. The gelatinization temperature of the modified starch increased with respect to the time taken.

Conclusion: In conclusion, there was an indication that acidified ethanol changed the starch structure and architecture with a corresponding effect on the gelatinization temperature, easy drying and reaction with Iodine solution. The process of modification of the starch gave rise ethyl-O-starch. In addition, starch modified with HCl/ethanol obeys the Lambert-beer law and the rate of hydrolysis of its molecular chains could be monitored and calculated. Therefore, cassava starch modified with acidified ethanol could find applications in food, textile and paper industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Polymer from Sesamum radiatum as an Emulsifier and Stabilizer in Fabrication of Macroemulsions

Ndidi C. Ngwuluka, Edith O. Ugwuagbo, Elijah I. Nep, Patrick O. Olorunfemi, Patricia O. Odumosu, Nelson A. Ochekpe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19729

Aim: Sesamum gum was extracted from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum and evaluated as emulsifier or stabilizer in coarse emulsions.

Methods: The emulsion systems were assessed by monitoring of emulsion density, viscosity, globule size, and by evaluating the effects of temperature and salt over a four week period.

Results: It was observed that the known 4:2:1 ratio did not form emulsions when sesamum was used but other ratios such as 2:4:1, 2:4:0.5, 2:4:0.25 and 2:4:0.125 formed emulsions. The emulsions were however, unstable. When sesamum gum was used as a stabilizing agent (0.4%w/v – 2.0%w/v), and acacia (7.5%w/v) as an emulsifying agent, stable emulsions were formed. At the end of four weeks, the emulsion systems exhibited lower globule sizes (1.68-1.95 µm) than the emulsion systems containing acacia alone (3.95 µm) as emulsifier. The emulsions creamed or cracked when exposed to temperatures of about 40°C over 4 weeks. They were however stable even in the presence of salt of 1.0%w/v concentration.

Conclusion: The presence of sesamum as a stabilizer influenced the globule size and size distribution, the viscosity and consequently the stability of the emulsions. The study suggests that sesamum gum possesses the desirable properties of emulsifier/stabilizer in emulsions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Activity of Different Fractions of Ethanolic Extract of Dactyloctenium aegyptium in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

S. Nagarjuna, T. E. Gopala Krishna Murthy, A. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20047

Aims: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of n-hexane, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Methanolic fractions from ethanolic extract of Dactyloctenium aegyptium in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: The animals were divided into seven groups and each group consisted of six rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education& Research (RIPER), Anantapuramu and 35 days.  

Methodology: The animals were divided into seven groups and each group consisted of six rats. Group I-Untreated normal rats, Group II-Untreated diabetic rats, Group III-Diabetic rats treated with Gliclazide 4.5 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days, Group IV- Diabetic rats treated with n- hexane fraction of EDA (NHF) 50 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days, Group V- Diabetic rats treated with Chloroform fraction of EDA (CF) 50 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days, Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with Ethyl acetate fraction of EDA (EAF) 50 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days, Group VII: Diabetic rats treated with Methanolic fraction of EDA (MF) 50 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days and the serum was separated and used for the estimation of glucose levels. On 31st day of experiment, best fraction was investigated further for its action on insulin, Hb, HbA1c, oxidative parameters, body weight and cell integrity of pancreas.

Results: Results indicated that animals treated with MF shown significant decrease in blood glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde levels and significant increase in insulin, Hb, SOD, catalase, reduced glutathione and body weight.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that methanolic fraction of ethanolic extract of Dactyloctenium aegyptium has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of diabetes however necessary studies are required on characterization of active principles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tramadol Hydrochloride Tablets by Direct Compression Method

Syed Wajid, Mohamed N. Al-Arifi, Suhair S. Al Saleh, Salmeen D. Babelgaith, Suha S. Al Saleh, Abdul Rahim Mohamed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19392

Aims: To design and evaluate an orally disintegrating tramadol hydrochloride tablets (ODT).

Methods: Tramadol hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets were designed and manufactured by direct compression method, using Cross povidone, Precirol, EPO, Sorbitol, PEG 6000, Aerosol, HCL, magnesium stearate, xylitol, acesulfame potassium, as key excipients, and peppermint flavor and sweetener, respectively. These formulations were then evaluated using pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial physical and chemical tests. Dissolution and assay tests were performed using USP apparatus II and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, respectively.

Results: The tablet formulation prepared with crospovidone (F1) showed good flow properties, low disintegration time (13 s) and improved drug release (100% at 30 min) compared with those of the other formulations (84 % at 30 min). All the formulations exhibited satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. The results indicated that suitable ODT of tramadol could be prepared.

Conclusion: A suitable preparation of tramadol Hcl ODT which contains Crospovidone (superdisintegrant) and sorbitol (bulking agent) was found to be the best among Tramadol hydrochloride ODT formulations  prepared by direct compression method, because it has exhibited good disintegration time and  good dissolution profile when compared to other formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Powder Dosage Form of Insulin for Intranasal Delivery

Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh, Omonkhelin Josephine Owolabi, Sylvester Okhuelegbe Eraga, Ovbokhan Henry Iyamu, Osarugue Uyi, Augustine O. Okhamafe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/20574

Aims: To develop a powder dosage form of insulin for intranasal administration and investigate its glucose-lowering effect in albino rabbits.

Methods: Nine different powder formulations, each containing 500 mg powder equivalent to 50 IU of insulin were prepared by adsorbing soluble insulin solution mixed with varying amounts of polysorbate 80, guar gum and porcine mucin on to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder by solvent evaporation. The formulations were subjected to in vitro release studies, from which two optimized formulations (E and H) were further evaluated in vivo for their glucose lowering effect in albino rabbits via the intranasal route.

Results: All the formulations released > 90% of insulin within 30 min in the in vitro release studies. Formulations E and H containing 0.1% Tween 80 and either guar gum or mucin gave the highest drug release of 85% each in 15 min and were selected for the in vivo studies. In vivo results obtained after 30 and 60 min of intranasal administration showed a reduction of 30 and 15% in blood glucose level for formulation E and 40 and 30% for formulation H as against the subcutaneously administered insulin (control) with 51 and 46% reduction respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the control and the formulations with regard to their glucose-lowering effect.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the insulin powder dosage form prepared with MCC for intranasal delivery achieved a moderate reduction in blood glucose level in rats via the intranasal route, indicating the formulations can be further developed to achieve enhanced insulin administration.