Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Vincristine in Leaf and Callus Extract by Validated HPTLC Technique and Its Stress Degradation Studies

Md. Abul Barkat, Mohd. Mujeeb, Harshita ., Md. Akhlaquer Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-318
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18265

Aims: An incipient, concrete, sensitive, selective, precise, and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was established and validated for estimation of vincristine alkaloid in leaf extract as well as it’s callus.

Study Design:  Mention the design of the study here.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India between June 2010 and July 2011.

Methodology: HPTLC was performed on aluminium foil precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of 73:25:2, v/v (methanol: toluene: diethyl amine) as a mobile phase. The densitometric analysis was carried out at 254 nm utilizing Camag TLC scanner which engendered compact spots for vincristine (Rf =0.38±0.02).

Results: The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship (r2=0.998±0.003) between peak area and concentration in the range of 500-3000 ng spot-1. The method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, and detection and quantification limits, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.06 and 9.29 ng spot-1, respectively.

Conclusion: Statistical analysis showed that the method could be prosperously applied for the estimation of vincristine in leaf extract and in callus. As the method could efficaciously separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability indicating one. Moreover, the proposed HPTLC method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of acid degradation process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudes, Practice and Predictors of Rational Use of Medicines among Medicines Prescribers and Dispensers in Nnewi Nigeria

P. O. U. Adogu, R. Okechukwu, N. B. Egenti, C. O. Emerole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 319-329
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18210

Aims: Rational use of medicines (RUM) requires that patients receive the appropriate medicine, in the proper dose, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community. Positive attitude and practice of RUM among medicine prescribers and dispensers can be created through regular educational interventions. This study was aimed at assessing the attitude, practice and predictors of RUM among the practitioners in Nnewi, Nigeria.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pharmacists, other pharmacy staff in retail pharmacies, licensed proprietary patent medicines vendors (PPMVs), and medical doctors in Nnewi, Nigeria. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire supervised by trained research assistants, between October 2014 and January 2015. Three hundred of seventy-five participants were recruited for this study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 for windows was used for data analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to evaluate differences and associations based on selected variables.

Results: The respondents who were predominantly aged 20-30 years (44.8%) with mean age of 33.2±8.9 years, consist of doctors (prescribers) and other healthcare practitioners (dispensers) in private and public sector. The dispensers expressed a markedly greater willingness to attend trainings on RUM than the doctors (p<0.02). In all the indicators considered, higher proportions of dispensers than prescribers said they practiced RUM in the previous 3 months. Age, medical and pharmacy occupations, high education, employee status and long work experience all significantly predict RUM among the respondents.

Conclusion: Practitioners were willing to attend trainings on RUM though the dispensers were significantly more enthusiastic about it than the prescribers. The practice of RUM among the respondents was however very poor. Higher educational status, older age group, government employee status and long work experience all markedly predict RUM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Charecterization and Fatty Acid Profiles of Clarius batrachus and Its Defense Activity

Giridharan Bupesh, Chinnaiah Amutha, Krishnan Saravana Murali, Natarajan Saran, Pitchaipillai Shanthi, Sakthivel Vasanth, E. Manikandan, Periasamy Subramanian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 353-364
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/17066

Innate Defense Components were being useful to identify and understand their mode of action on microbial pathogens. The present study portrays the qualitative and quantitative determination of endogenous lipids from the skin, intestine, kidney and liver of Clarius batrachus. The skin lipids were identified by TLC, which constitutes phosphatydyl serine (Ptd Ser) (48%), glycerophospholipids (23%), phosphoglyceride (20%), and 7% of cholesterol (C). The GC-MS FAME profile of the Skin comprised, the saturated fatty acid (SFA) with n-16 and n-18 as major fatty acids, 25.04% of palmitic (PAM) and 10.23% of stearic acid (STA). The fatty acid profiles and lipid classes of other organs were also identified and quantitated. The results from the present study bestowed to the skin lipid from the C.batrachus can be developed as a novel drug for multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Nine Sri Lankan Antidiabetic Plants

J. Poongunran, H. K. I. Perera, W. I. T. Fernando, L. Jayasinghe, R. Sivakanesan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 365-374
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18645

Aims: α-Amylase and α-glucosidase have been recognized as therapeutic targets for reduction of postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. Objective of the study was to assess the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of nine Sri Lankan antidiabetic plants.

Study Design: In vitro enzyme inhibitory assays.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, from October 2013 to December 2014.

Methodology: Methanol extracts of nine plant parts were used. Pterocarpus marsupium latex was used without extraction. Enzyme inhibition assays were conducted in the presence and absence of plant extracts using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Percentage inhibition of the two enzymes and the IC50 values were determined.

Results: The IC50 values of Ficus racemosa stem bark and Pterocarpus marsupium latex were significantly lower (p< 0.05) than the IC50 value of Acarbose for porcine pancreatic amylase. Lowest IC50 for amylase was observed with P. marsupium. The IC50 values of Phyllanthus emblica fruit, Phyllanthus debilis whole plant, P. marsupium and F. racemosa were significantly lower (p<0.05) than Acarbose for yeast glucosidase. Musa paradisiaca yam and Tinospora cordifolia leaves showed considerable inhibitory effects on glucosidase activity. Coccinia grandis, Gymnema lactiferum, Gymnema sylvestre and Strychnos potatorum seeds did not show considerable inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

Conclusion: A significantly high (p< 0.05) in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were observed with the methanol extracts of F. racemosa, P. emblica, P. debilis and P. marsupium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Method for Determination of Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid from Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by HPLC

Md. Habib Ullah Bhuyian, Dr. Harun Ar Rashid, A. F. M. Ariful Islam, Md. Isha Tareque

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 375-385
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/18494

Aim: A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid in ointment was developed and validated as per ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guidelines.

Methodology: Separation of Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid was achieved on Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) stationary phase by using mobile phase solution A, solution B and solution C (Solution A, B and C was composed of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, methanol [HPLC grade] and Acetonitrile [HPLC Grade]) with gradient flow rate. The injection volume and temperature of the column oven were 20µl and 30ºC± 2ºC respectively.

Results: The developed method shows high specificity for Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid. The calibration curve for Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid was linear and correlation coefficient (r2) for Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid was 1.0000 & 0.9999 respectively. The proposed method was adequate selective, reproducible and specific for the determination of Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid from ointment. Average percent of recovery for the drugs Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid were found 100.33% and 100.62% respectively. All of the results are within the acceptance criteria.

Conclusion: The proposed method was accurate and precise for the quantification of Clobetasol Propionate and Salicylic Acid in the ointment, also be used for routine analysis in quality control. The method parameters like selectivity, precision, intermediate precision, accuracy, linearity, recovery and stability was validated.

Open Access Review Article

Biological and Pharmacological Properties of the Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Mueen Ahmad Ch, Syeda Batool Naz, Asifa Sharif, Maimoona Akram, Muhammad Asad Saeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-339
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/16505

Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) a member of Lamiaceae family, is native throughout the old World and cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes. Basil was originated in Asia and Africa. Basil is used in both Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine and is also popular for its culinary and ornamental uses. Various parts of the plant of sweet basil have been widely used in traditional medicine. The leaves and flowers of basil are used in folk medicine as a tonic and vermifuge. Basil tea is good for treating nausea, flatulence and dysentery. The oil of the plant has been found to be beneficial for the alleviation of mental fatigue, colds, spasm, rhinitis, and as a first aid treatment for wasp stings and snakebites.

Studies showed that basil possesses central nervous system (CNS) depressant, anticancer, cardiac stimulant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulator, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, chemomodulatory and larvicidal activities. The present review article provides up-to-date information on basil chemical properties, therapeutic benefits and pharmacological studies.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Natural Remedy Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standly: A Review

Dinesh Kumar, Chandrashekhar Sharma, Bhuwanendra Singh, Deepak Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 340-352
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/17641

Herbal medicines are the promising choice over modern synthetic drugs because they show minimum/no side effects and are considered to be safe for human being. Bottle gourd or Lauki or Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standly is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and cucumber. Lagenaria siceraria has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used in headache and constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from Lagenaria siceraria including triterpenoids, sterols, cucurbitacins, flavones, C-glycosides and β-glycosides. The edible portion contains thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid as a vitamins source. It is used as medicine in India, China, Africa, Brazil and European countries for its cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. In this review, an attempt has been made to explore the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge about this well known plant species as well as several promising aspects for research on Lagenaria siceraria.