Open Access Short Communication

Phytochemical Identification in the Chloroform Fraction of Aqueous-Methanol Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves

Samuel Chidi Iwuji, Arthur Nwafor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 437-441
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/13264

Aims: This study is designed to identify minor bioactive compounds present in 80% aqueous-methanol chloroform fraction of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) air-dried leaves using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry.
Methodology: The air-dried leaves of CA were pulverized and Soxhlet-extracted with aqueous-methanol (1:4, v/v). The dried leaf extract obtained was purified in chloroform and analyzed with 1H NMR- spectrometry using dimethyl sulphoxide solvent.
Results: The proton NMR spectra were interpreted to indicate the presence of major phytochemicals like flavonoids, anthraquinones anthranoids), saponins and alkaloids with their minor bioactive compounds. Some of the identified compounds included eupafolin, hispidulin, oleonolic acid, β-sitosterol, isoquecetin, kaempferol 3-O- gentiobioside, rhamnopyranosyl-(1)-glucopyranosyl-(1)-glucopyranoside, Seneciomine, Retrorsine and Seneciphylline.
Conclusion: The proton NMR-spectrometry characterized and aided the identification of phyto-compounds present in chloroform fraction of C. aconitifolius leaf extract. These phytochemicals could be medicinally and toxicologically potent and responsible for the reported effects of the extract. However, bioassay-guided fractionation using HPTLC is still recommended for better extrapolations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Anti-psoriatic Activity of Cassia fistula L. Extract Incorporated Cream

Nguyen Thanh Tram, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 370-378
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15997

Aims: To investigate the efficacy of topical application of Cassia fistula L. fruit extract in hydrophilic cream for psoriasiform dermatitis on mouse model.
Study Design: Formulations containing fruit extract were prepared, characterized, and made available for in vivo animal study.
Place and Duration of Study: School of Biotechnology, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City from January to December 2014. Department of Anatomy, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City on October 2014.
Methodology: Cassia fistula fruit methanol extract at varied concentrations of 2.5, 3.75, 5.0, 6.25, and 0% (w/w) was entrapped in oil-in-water topical emulsion to produce different formulations. Chemically induced psoriasis-like skin in mice was performed, and psoriasis- inflicted mice were then individualized for time-tested topical regimens with prepared formulae. Dithranol 0.5% was served as standard anti-psoriatic treatment. Histometric analysis was conducted for outcome measures including degree of orthokeratosis and relative epidermal thickness.
Results: Investigation results revealed that most of the formulations containing methanol extract of Cassia fistula produced signiï¬cant (P<.001) degree of orthokeratosis with respect to control, wherein a medication with formula incorporating 6.25% extract had the highest efficacy (40.81±1.19%). Treatment with this herbal cream also caused significant (P<.001) decreases in relative epidermal thickness by 26.08±1.39%, which was more potent than the standard (51.57± 3.05%).
Conclusion: Treatment with Cassia fistula contained cream ameliorated psoriasis symptoms of the animals and prevented psoriasis worse. These suggest that Cassia fistula could have anti-psoriatic activity and could be further explored for psoriasis treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous and Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Landolphia dulcis on Haematology and Histopathology of Swiss Albino Mice

Akharaiyi Fred Coolborn, Boboye Bolatito

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 392-405
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/7098

Aims: To evaluate toxicological effect of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Landolphia dulcis on haematology, liver and kidney physiological changes in mice.
Study Design: In-vivo.
Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between April 2012 and July, 2012.
Methodology: Thirty five mice of both sexes weighing between 23-35 g were divided into seven groups of five per group after six hour fasting period. The mice in group 1 received normal saline (10 ml/kg oral) while the mice in groups 2-6 received oral doses of the extracts (200, 400, 800, 1000, 2000 mg/kg respectively) for 14 days on a single daily dose. The animals were observed for obvious toxic symptoms and mortality in each group within 24 hr.
Results: Though slight differences in values were observed between the control and extract treated mice, insignificant different in values (P>0.05) were observed among the aqueous and ethanol extract treated mice. Hematological indices of the mice showed slight differences in decreased values from the control to the extract treated group of mice. Results observed were on dose dependence of the extract where no significant difference occurred and changes below or above standard range to suggest ill health. The histopathology of the liver and kidney provided supportive evidence for the unaltered haematological parameters observed.
Conclusion: With the results obtained, composition of drugs, which have the polyherbal formulations of L. dulcis plant extract, should be encouraged for its therapeutic importance, proposed useful remedy in hepatoprotective renal protection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cassia alata Root Extract on Smooth Muscle Activity

Tologbonse Adedayo Adedoyin, Imoru O. Joshua, Ofem E. Ofem, J. Akpan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 406-418
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/14457

Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: The root of Cassia alata had been preferentially used early this century in the south-south Nigeria, especially in Old Calabar province as an abortifacient by women, for the termination of early pregnancy with apparent success. Some studies and investigations have been carried out on the seeds, leaves, barks and pods of Cassia species and in particular, the seeds, leaves and barks of Cassia alata have been studied to a greater extent but a few study had been reported on the pharmacological and toxicology properties of Cassia alata. roots.
Aims of the Study: This study investigated the acute toxicity effect (i.p. LD50) of ethanolic Cassia alata (RCAE) root extract in albino mice only; also the ethanolic and aqueous roots extracts on smooth muscle activity in rat and rabbit. It also proffer into the possible mechanism of its action by comparism to known standard agonists and antagonists.
Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity effect (i.p. LD50) of Cassia alata roots was investigated using forty two (42) Albino mice of both sexes (23-31 g). The mortality in each group was assessed twenty four (24) hours each day, and for three (3) consecutive days adding up to 72 hours after administration of the roots extract. In the second experiment, the rat and rabbit were assessed for the uterine smooth muscle activities using the extract and comparism standard agonists and antagonists.
Results: The LD50 of the treated mice intraperitoneally was 263±25 mg/kg. The influence of the ethanolic Cassia alata root extract (RCAE) on rat and rabbit smooth muscle preparations exhibited marked dose-dependent spasmodic effect on drug-induced contractions of the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) and uterus/fallopian smooth muscle preparations tested. The log dose-response curves of Aceteylcholine and Histamine were shifted to the right in the presence of RCAE (8 x10-4 g/ml) with increasing Kd50 (EC50) values, but with decreasing amplitude (P<0.01). The stimulatory effect of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Cassia alata root (8 x10-4 g/ml) on the rabbit and rat GIT and uterus/fallopian tube smooth muscle was not attenuated by atropine (4.8 x10-6 g/ml), propranolol (1.5 x10-3 g/ml) or phentolamine (1 x10-4 g/ml). But preadministration of Aminophylline (5 x10-3 g/ml) significantly attenuated the contraction of RCAE (8 x10-4 g/ml) induced spasms on the rat uterus (P<0.05-0.01). RCAE also exhibited significant spasmodic effect on the smooth muscle in response to increased Ca2+ concentration in a high Ca2+ free media. The microscopic examination of the histopathologic effect of RCAE revealed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction on the uterine mucosa.
Conclusion: Our findings in this study indicate that, the ethanolic extract of the root of Cassia alata is moderately toxic with a lethality dose (LD50) of 263±25 mg/kg and that Cassia alata root may contain pharmacologically active ingredients, which exhibits significant pharmacological contractility effects. Cassia alata roots extracts may be pharmacologically more potent than the leaf extract especially on the reproductive tract. Cassia alata root may also be a possible plant source of abortifacient and laxative drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the In-vivo Antiplasmodial Properties of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Leaves

Emmanuel Orman, Phyllis Addo, Michael Fokuo Ofori, Reimmel Kwame Adosraku

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 419-430
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15714

Aim: The study investigated Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), for its in-vivo antiplasmodial properties, using a murine model involving Plasmodium berghei.
Study Design: Experimental.
Places of Study and Duration: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, KNUST, Department of Immunology, NMIMR and Department of Animal Experimentation, NMIMR, May – November, 2013.
Methodology: Phytochemical investigation was conducted on powdered plant material and aqueous leaf extract (ML), to determine the presence of secondary metabolites using standard methods. Using 4-day suppressive and 7-day curative tests respectively, ML at 250-1000 mg/kg, was evaluated for in-vivo antiplasmodial activity in P. berghei infected male ICR mice (25-30 g), using Artemether-Lumefantrine (A/L) at 4 mg/kg as reference drug. The effect of ML on the body weights and the survival of the mice, as well as the effect on improvement in clinical signs was also monitored.
Results: ML extract was found to contain alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The extracts (250-1000 mg/kg) produced significant reduction in parasitemia in the four-day suppressive test (F6,49 = 4.309; p =.0014). However, 250 mg/kg (69.31%; p< .001) and 500 mg/kg (77.26%; p< .001) extracts exhibited relatively higher activities compared to 750 mg/kg (25.28%; p< .001) and 1000 mg/kg (07.12%; p> .05). In the curative test, similar results were obtained with significant parasitemia reduction for 250 mg/kg (AUC = 52.52±6.732; p< .01) and 500 mg/kg (AUC = 49.62 ± 3.804; p< .01) compared to the positive control group (AUC = 101.3±14.32). Piloerection, lethargy and decreased locomotion were observed to be progressive in all infected experimental groups except A/L. Survival data showed that, although 750 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg groups recorded relatively higher mortalities, statistical analysis didn’t indicate significant difference.
Conclusion: ML extract demonstrated in-vivo antiplasmodial activity; probably due to the alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and tannins in its composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Haemostatic Activities of Sida corymbosa in Rats

Lucy B. John-Africa, Mercy Aboh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 431-436
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15676

Aims: To evaluate the anti-haemorrhagic activity of the leaf extract of Sida corymbosa in Wistar albino rats, a plant used to arrest bleeding in ethnomedical practices.
Methods: The acute toxicity test was carried out in rats. The haemostatic activities of the extract were investigated using the tail bleeding time and amount of bleeding in rats; effects on haematological parameters were also evaluated in Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted to detect the phytoconstituents of the extract of Sida corymbosa.
Results: In this study, the oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5 g/kg. Administration of the extract to rats for 14 days produced a dose-dependent and significant (P≤0.05) decrease in bleeding time and quantity of blood loss in pre-treated rats. On oral administration of the extract, the effects of the treatment on haematological parameters – White blood cells, Red blood cell, haemoglobin concentration were not significantly different from control.
Conclusion: This study has shown that Sida corymbosa has constituents with anti-haemorrhagic properties in rats thereby providing scientific validation for the ethnomedical use of the plant in bleeding control.

Open Access Review Article

Crystallography and Biopharmaceutics of Some Antimalarials

Sunday O. Awofisayo, Augustine O. Okhamafe, Ehijie F. O. Enato, Matthew I. Arhewoh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 379-391
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2015/15832

Crystallography is a branch of science that deals with the discerning of the arrangement and bonding of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystal structural differences in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)/excipients in multi-source generics of antimalarials may present differences in their physicochemical properties and ultimately the rate and extent of drug absorption. Tackling the menace of the continuing spread of multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria may require the evaluation of the crystal structural influences of orally administered drugs on antimalarial bioavailability.