Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluating the Rationality of Antibiotic Dispensing in Treating Common Cold Infections among Pharmacists in Baghdad – Iraq

Ehab Mudher Mikhael

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2653-2661
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13586

Background: Common cold is a self limited viral infection, which can be treated symptomatically without the need to antibiotics which are not effective or curative. This study aimed to evaluate the practices of community pharmacists in communicating, diagnosing, treating and counseling patients who are requesting antibiotics for their common cold treatment.
Methods: A cross-sectional pilot exploratory study was done in Baghdad – Iraq at which a pharmacist acts as simulated person (SP) in order to collect the data. SP asks the pharmacist about the strongest antibiotic for common cold. SP observed and explored adherence of the pharmacist to law in dispensing over the counter (OTC) and prescription only medications (POM) drugs, patient’s counseling standards, and symptomatic diagnosis of common cold through using WWHAM (who is the patient, what are the symptoms, for how long, any action taken, any medication taken) technique.
Results: More than 60% of pharmacists had failed to use WWHAM technique as a method for probing information about the patient and his/her case history. Furthermore there is a significant lack for asking the patients about their past medical history and drug allergy. 45% of Iraqi pharmacists supplied the SP with antibiotic for his common cold. Amoxicillin was the most commonly supplied (44.4%) antibiotic for common cold. Patients' counseling by pharmacists was mostly about the frequency of drug dosing.
Conclusion: there are insufficient clinical and communication skills for Iraqi pharmacists who work in community pharmacies, this result not only in an irrational antibiotic dispensing but also in poor pharmacist's ability to counsel and educate the patient about the proper use of the dispensed medications.

Open Access Short Research Article

Correlation of Total Secondary Sulfur Compounds, Total Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in the Ramsons and Garlic

Omer Mahmutovic, Ismet Tahirovic, Amira Copra, Mustafa Memic, Saida Ibragic, Lutvija Karic

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2662-2669
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13977

Aims: This study explores the total quantity of sulfur secondary metabolites in the plant organs of garlic and ramsons, the content of total phenol and their correlation to the antioxidant capacity (AOC). There are different reports about correlation of secondary sulfur compounds and phenols from garlic to AOC. The aims of this research was to investigate this correlation of total secondary compounds of sulfur as whole, not some isolated molecules to the AOC, and to reveal the medicinal valuation of ramsons leaf at late spring period.
Methodology: Samples of garlic and ramsons were collected from rural locations in the surroundings of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in the late May period. The AOC was carried out through the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) method using a generated peroxyl radical (ROO•). The quantity of total sulfur was being determinate using the Ion chromatography method (HPIC), in the form of a sulfate ion. The samples were treated in a strong oxidizing media. The total phenols content has been measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method.
Results: AOC is higher in the leaves than in the bulbs during most of the vegetative period. Content of phenol compounds is multiple times higher in the leaves than in the underground parts of the plants. During the first period of vegetation, concentration of sulfur compounds is higher in leaves than in the bulbs.
Conclusion: Secondary sulfur compounds have no influence on the AOC of garlic. Moreover, there was no significant influence of phenolic compounds on the antioxidant capacity. AOC show dependence on the age of plant. Optimal time for consumption of ramsons is the early spring period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Effect of α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Voglibose in a Novel Obese Diabetic Model

T. Ohta, Y. Kemmochi, K. Miyajima, M. Shinohara, T. Yamada

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2622-2630
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13553

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the preventive or therapeutic effect of α-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose in a new model rat, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa (SDT fatty) rat, which is a novel type 2 diabetic rat showing obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from a young age.
Place and Duration of Study: Niigata University and JT Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, between January and August 2011.
Methodology: The present study was designed to the preventive and therapeutic effect of voglibose by administering (0.3, 1 mg/kg) voglibose as a dietary admixture to SDT fatty rats from 5 to 11 and 14 to 20 weeks of age, respectively.
Result: In the examination of preventive effect, the obtained biochemical results show that voglibose decrease glucose level significantly in dose-dependent manner within 5-11 weeks of age. In voglibose-treated rats at 11 weeks of age, the histopathological pancreatic changes, such as vacuolation and irregular boundaries in islets, were improved. On the other hand, in the examination of therapeutic effect, voglibose improved the hyperglycemia only at a dose of 1 mg/kg within 16-20 weeks of age.
Conclusion: Voglibose showed both preventive and therapeutic effects for diabetes in female SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for development of anti-diabetic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constitutents and Antidiabetic Property of Cola nitida Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

Iliemene Uju Dorathy, Shekins O. Okere, Eze Ejike Daniel, Liman Labaran Mubarak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2631-2641
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13071

The seeds of Cola nitida were investigated for their anti-diabetic properties. The extracts were obtained by maceration in cold water. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes mellitus (DM) in the rats at 180mg/kg body weight and diabetes was confirmed after 48 hours. The Phytochemical analyses of the plants showed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, terpernoid, cardiac-gylcoside, and alkaloids. Anthraquinone and saponin were observed to be absent. Cola nitida was also observed to cause a reduction in blood glucose level from 599±0.667mg/dl (diabetic control) to 170±0.577mg/dl (extract treated group). The extract showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease of blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Cola nitida aqueous extract showed a higher level of potency when compared to a known anti-diabetic drug (Glanil).

Open Access Original Research Article

Wound Healing Activity of Total Alkaloidal Extract of the Root Bark of Alstonia boonei (Apocynacea)

John Peter Fetse, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Evans Dueve, Kwasi Buadu Mensah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2642-2652
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13952

Aims: Screening total alkaloidal extract from Alstonia boonei root bark for antimicrobial and wound healing activity.
Methodology: The anti-microbial screening was performed using the agar well diffusion method and the excision wound model was employed for the wound healing experiment.
Results: Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the extract showed four (4) spots when glacial acetic acid, ethyl acetate and chloroform were used in the ratio 1:3:1 respectively. However, six (6) spots were observed when ethyl acetate, methanol and water were used in the ratio 15:3:2 respectively. The total alkaloid extract showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The extract also showed significant wound healing activity (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The TLC showed that the total alkaloid extract contains several individual chemical compounds. The alkaloid extract has good antimicrobial activity against the above listed microorganisms at concentrations of 1% (10mg/ml) and above. The total alkaloid extract of Alstonia boonei possesses significant wound healing activity which was evident by the increased rate of wound contraction and reduction in the period of epithelialization.