Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Rosemary and Ginger Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-induced Injury

Rilson José do Pinho, Rafael Pazinatto Aguiar, Ricardo Alexandre Spironello, Francielli Maria de Souza Silva-Comar, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Eurica Mary Nogami, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2126-2135
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/13025

Aims: Liver diseases have become one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. This study investigated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of rosemary essential oil (REO) and ginger essential oil (GEO), against paracetamol-induced liver damage.
Methodology: The hepatoprotective effects of REO and GEO at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 7 days were determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity. In vitro antioxidant activity of REO and GEO were evaluated by assessing the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation.
Results: REO and GEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and MPO activity. The essentials oils also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay.
Conclusion: These results suggest that REO and GEO have hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice probably due to their antioxidant effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) Extracts against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

Mbafor Fidelia Lem, V. Khan Payne, J. Wabo Poné, Mbogning Tayo Gertrude, J. Tchoumboue

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2136-2145
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12936

Background: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a major threat to sheep productivity and endanger animal welfare worldwide particularly in developing countries. They cause loss of production through mortality, weight loss, reduced milk, meat and wool production. Thus, parasitism is an important limiting factor or constraint in livestock production.
Aim: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity of organic and aqueous extracts of stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using varieties of in vivo tests.
Materials and Methods: Thirty (30) West African Dwarf Djallonke sheep acquired natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes of both sexes, aged 6-10 months old and weighing between 9-13kg, use in bioassay were distributed into 5 groups (n=6). Two experiments using methanol (Groups A to E) and hot water extracts ( Groups A’ to E’) were simultaneously carried out. Groups A & A’ received 1.25% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water 1ml/10 kg bwt respectively, Groups B & B’ received Albendazole at 6.25mg/kg bwt, Groups C & C’, D & D’ and E & E’ received doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt of each extract. Sheep were subjected to different treatment with single dose of synthetic drug and double doses of plant extracts.
Results: Methanol extract for all the doses tested was active in vivo on the adults of GIN, and reduced significantly (p<0.05) the faecal egg count (FEC) and total warm count (TWC) of the nematodes. The dose rate 500mg/kg showed the highest nematicidal activity of 77, 6% FEC and 73, 5% TWC reduction 14 days post-treatment. For hot water extract, these numbers were 65, 3% and 62, 1% for FEC and TWC respectively at the same dose for the same period of treatment.
Conclusion: These results suggest the possible use of this medicinal plant in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and justify their use in traditional veterinary practices; hence a toxicological study of the extract of this plant is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Extraction Techniques of Persicaria odorata Extracts Utilizing Anti-bacterial Bioassay

Rasha Saad, Jiyauddin Khan, Vivegananth Krishnanmurthi, Fadli Asmani, Eddy Yusuf

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2146-2154
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12232

Persicaria odorata is a common plant and well known in Malaysia as “Daun kesum” that is commonly used in cuisines and has various medicinal properties. This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the extraction technique that produce the most active plant extract. The leaves were extracted using decoction, maceration assisted by ultra-sonication and percolation with soxhlet extractor to produce the respective extracts. All extracts were tested against four bacterial strains which included gram positive and gram negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. In this research gentamicin 10 μg were used as the antibacterial standard. The antimicrobial activity of the active extract was evaluated quantitatively using three different concentrations. The result from this study shows that Persicaria odorata leaves have high potential to be used as natural antibacterial agent against some bacterial infections depending on the method used to extract the active ingredient. The results shows that the extract obtained with percolation with soxhlet technique shows the best antibacterial activity followed by maceration with ultrasonication. Decoction extracts shows the weakest antibacterial activity. The extract obtain from both maceration with ultra-sonication and percolation using soxhlet extractor show significant (P=0.05) antimicrobial activity against all four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella spp.).

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioassay Guided Isolation and Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Principles of Combretum dolichopetalum Root

Philip F. Uzor, Patience O. Osadebe, Edwin O. Omeje, Matthias O. Agbo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2155-2171
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/9143

Aims: The present study was aimed at investigating the antidiabetic potentials of Combretum dolichopetalum root in alloxan-induced animals with the hope of isolating its antidiabetic principles.
Study Design: Sixty four Wistar albino rats of either sexes were randomly segregated into 16 groups (n=4). Also, thirty two albino mice were segregated into 8 groups. These received various doses of the plant sample, vehicle or glibenclamide for the antidiabetic study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was done in the laboratory of the Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between March and October, 2013.
Methodology: The root of C. dolichopetalum was extracted with methanol (ME) and fractionated successively with various solvents (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, methanol and water) to afford the respective fractions: HF, CF, EF, MF and AF. CF was further fractionated to afford six sub-fractions: C1-C6. Acute toxicity study was done using ME. Antidiabetic activity of various doses (p.o.) of ME (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight), its fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg) and sub-fractions (200 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were investigated in alloxan-induced (i.p.) diabetic animals for 9 h. Phytochemical analysis was also carried on ME and fractions.
Results: The extract was considered safe with LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg. ME (400 mg/kg), CF (400 mg/kg) and C3 (200 mg/kg) produced maximum reduction (36.78%, 72.43% and 83.17% respectively) in fasting blood glucose of animals after 9 h which were significantly (P < .01, P < .001) different from the control and better than glibenclamide (48.18%). Phytochemical analysis showed alkaloids, flavonoids, terpens and steroids as the likely antidiabetic agent(s).
Conclusion: The root of C. dolichopetalum possesses potent antidiabetic activity which increases as the extract is purified. The antidiabetic effect of the plant may likely be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpens or steroids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic and Acute Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Root Extract of Salacia lehmbachii

L. P. Takem, B. A. S. Lawal, P. M. Udia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2172-2181
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/9250

Aim: Salacia lehmbachii is used in South Eastern Nigeria folk medicine to treat abdominal pain, inflammatory disorders and malaria symptom without scientific documentation. The aim of this study was therefore, to assess possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous root extract of Salacia lehmbachii (ARESL) in albino rats.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in World Bank Step B Anti-Malaria Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar-Nigeria, between November 2013 and January 2014.
Methodology: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of ARESL were assessed in Wistar rats at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. To assess analgesic activity, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests were used. To assess anti-inflammatory property, carrageenan and dextran-induced hind paw edema were used. Differences between group means were compared statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test as post hoc.
Results: In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg, showed a maximum inhibition (P=.05) of 71.66% of writhing while the standard drug Aspirin inhibited 81.05% of writhing compared to untreated control group. In formalin test, ARESL showed a maximum inhibition (P =.05) of 71.77% at a dose of 400 mg/kg while standard drug Pethidine showed 76.11%. For carrageenan-induced paw edema test, ARESL at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed maximum 85.90% inhibition (P =.05) of inflammatory activity while dextran-induced showed 87.9%.
Conclusion: ARESL possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities which corroborate the aqueous extract being used in folk medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Most Active Antioxidant Derivatives of Embelin

S. Mahendran, S. Badami, S. Ravi, B. S. Thippeswamy, V. P. Veerapur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2182-2199
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12708

Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of embelin and its derivatives.
Methods: In the present study embelin was condensed with various aliphatic substituted primary amines, hydrazines and amino acids to yield seven new and five reported derivatives. All these compounds along with embelin were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using ABTS and DPPH methods. Potent compounds were selected for in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.
Results: Hydrazines, amino acids substituted embelin derivatives and phenazines showed potent antioxidant activity. These compounds along with embelin were studied for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at 10 and 20 mg/kg doses by standard methods. Potent analgesic activity higher than the standard pentazocine was observed. Embelin and its derivatives almost completely abolished the acetic acid induced writhing. Phenyl alanine and phenazine derivative showed better anti-inflammatory activity than embelin.
Conclusion: Further research would be of interest to explain the exact mechanism of these compounds and chemical modifications, biological screening and toxicity studies can also be explored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Apparently Healthy Population and its Susceptibility to Saponins from Dialium guineense

W. O. Obonga, C. O. Nnadi, M. O. Agbo, F. C. Kenechukwu, U. Nwodo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2200-2209
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12943

Aims: The ethanolic extracts of stem bark and fruit pulp as well as saponins from Dialium guineense were assayed for antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains and clinical strains of methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from different locations on human body aged 20-30 years within the University of Nigeria community.
Methodology: Agar diffusion technique was adopted.
Results: The results showed that MRSA is predominant in apparently healthy population of the University community with 100% in males and 92.3% females showing positive case in nasal swab, 87.5% and 96.6 % positive from ear swabs of male and female volunteers respectively; and 77.7% positive from the high vaginal swabs of females. MRSA and other clinical isolates showed higher susceptibility to saponins compared to crude extracts; however, Bacillus cereus (NRRL 14724 and 14725) were not susceptible to the saponins from D. guineense. The MICs of the saponins were 31.25 mg/mL (B. subtilis ATCC 6051, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. knitambo, P. mirabilis and S. aureus), 62.50 mg/mL (E. coli) and 125 mg/mL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145). Comparable MICs of higher values were obtained with the crude ethanolic extracts of stem bark and fruit pulp against MRSA and clinical isolates.
Conclusion: The present findings revealed wide distribution of MRSA in an apparently healthy population in Nigeria and the susceptibility patterns showed the presence of a broad spectrum antibacterial agent in D. guineense.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiolytic, Sedative and Hypothermic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) in Albino Mice

Imoru Joshua Oloruntobi, Oyemitan Idris Ajayi, Ilesanmi Olapade Rufus

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2210-2225
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12529

Aims: This study evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative and hypothermic effects of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in Mice.
Study Design: One-factor two control groups experimental design.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, between October 2012 and January 2013.
Methodology: Animal models of novelty induced behaviours (rearing and locomotion), anxiolysis (T-maze and hole-board), sedation (amylobarbitone induced hypnosis) and hypothermia (rectal temperature measurement) were utilized in this study. Five different groups of white albino mice of both sexes weighing 23 – 28g (n=5 or 6) were randomly selected. Group 1 was the control (normal saline, 10 ml/kg, i.p.), group 2 was the positive control (diazepam, 1mg/kg, i.p.), while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with aqueous leaf extract at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg, i.p., respectively. All animals in each group were pre-treated for 30 minutes before assessment.
Results: V. amygdalina at 50 mg/kg showed anxiolytic activity by significantly (P<0.001) increasing the frequency of head-dip compared to control, and also a significant (P =.05) decrease and increase (P<0.001) in latencies to withdrawal from the closed and open arms of the elevated T-maze respectively. However, at 100-200mg/kg, V. amygdalina showed sedative activity by significantly (P<0.001) decreasing rearing, locomotion (P<0.001) and head-dip frequency (P<0.001) in mice. Furthermore, V. amygdalina (100-200mg/kg) caused significant (P<0.001) decrease in sleep latency and significantly (P<0.001) increased sleep duration in amylobarbitone-induced sleeping test indicating sedative activity. V. amygdalina (50-200mg/kg) also caused significant (at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min; P=.05) reduction in rectal temperature in mice compared to normal saline and diazepam.
Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina may possess anxiolytic, sedative and hypothermic effects, hence justifying its folkloric medicinal use.