Open Access Short Communication

Quantitative Phytochemical Evaluation of Stem Bark Extracts of Harungana madagascariensis

Fredrick Nwude Eze, Osamede Jennifer Airouyuwa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2068-2074
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/9988

Aims: The study was conducted to quantify some phytochemicals present in hydroethanol (absolute ethanol: water 1:1 v/v) and methanol extracts of Harungana madagascariensis stem bark traditionally used in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Methodology: Hydroethanol and methanol extracts of H. madagascariensis were separately prepared from the stem bark powder. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the hydroethanol and methanol crude extracts were carried out by employing standard conventional protocols for total phenols, tannin, saponin, alkaloids, and anthraquinone from plants.
Results: Both samples showed the presence of all phytochemicals investigated. The study revealed that hydroethanol extract of H. madagascariensis stem bark contained higher amounts of bioactive compounds (65.72%±3.36, 7.22%±0.20, 2.45%±0.42 and 0.54%±0.04) in comparison with the methanol extract (52.54%±2.35, 3.50%±0.17, 0.60%±0.05 and 0.42%±0.02) for total phenols, tannin, alkaloids, and anthraquinone respectively. Amongst these, only total phenols and tannins were significantly (P<0.05) higher. The exception to this trend was in saponin which was higher in the methanol extract (0.59%±0.06) as opposed to 0.38%±0.11 in the hydroethanol extract.
Conclusion: Thus in all phytochemicals studied, hydroethanol extract of H. madagascariensis stem bark was found to be richer than the methanol extract. Saponin was the only exception. It can be concluded that bioactive compounds are more abundant in hydroethanol extract, and this potential could further be exploited in drug development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Five Malaysian Medicinal Plants

Rasha Saad, Loshini Appalasamy, Jiyauddin Khan, Hamid Kazi, Eddy Yusuf, Fadli Asmani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2019-2032
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12233

Natural drugs play important and vital role in the modern medicine. It is usually used to cure some ailments which may not be treated by conventional medicine. Natural drugs may exhibit many biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic and antioxidant. Five medicinal plants were screened, namely Moringa oleifera, Cymbopogon citrates, Cynodon dactylon, Manihot esculenta and Plectranthus ambonicus, for potential antibacterial activity against five clinical pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The purpose of this study is extracting, analyzing and screening phytochemicals and antibacterial activity in selected plant leaves. The ethanolic extracts of plant leaves were prepared using Soxhlet extraction and the in-vitro testing were conducted using disc diffusion method. The diameter of inhibition zones were measured in millimetre (mm), and test were conducted in three replicates. At concentration 5mg/mL, no inhibition zones detected in all extracts. As the concentration of extract increases, the bacterial inhibition zones also increases; thus, the more effective the antibacterial properties. The most active antibacterial plant was P. ambonicus, followed by M. oleifera and C. citratus; and the weakest were C. dactylon and M. esculenta. The most susceptible bacteria were S. aureus, followed by K. peumoniae and the most resistant bacteria were P. aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins in most of the plant extracts. The result of this study supports the use of all the selected five medicinal plants as a source of antibiotic substance for the possible treatment of human pathogenic organisms. These plants can be further subjected to isolation of the therapeutic antimicrobials and further pharmacological evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial, Synergistic and β-lactamase Inhibitory Activity of Oroxylem indicum: An In vitro and Molecular Interaction Study

Anupma Malik, Sheema Bai, Leena Seasotiya, Pooja Bharti, Sunita Dalal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2033-2045
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12343

Aims: The study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, synergistic and β-lactamase inhibitory potential of O. indicum against ampicillin resistant and Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacterial strains.
Methods: Bacterial strains were screened for ampicillin resistance and ESBL production by disk diffusion method and modified double disc synergy test respectively. Antibacterial and synergistic activities of O. indicum methanol extract and ethyl acetate sub fraction of methanol extract were explored by agar well diffusion method and Checkerboard method respectively. Extracts were subjected to Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis to identify the bioactive compounds. Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the β-lactamase inhibitory potential of the bioactive compounds.
Results: All bacterial strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin and only one strain was detected as ESBL positive. Ethyl acetate sub fraction exhibited strong antibacterial and synergistic activity than the methanol extract. Zone of inhibition and Minimum inhibitory concentration for ethyl acetate sub fraction was 16 mm and 15mg/ml respectively. In vitro interactions between plant extracts and ampicillin evaluated in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic effects of plant extracts. The molecular docking studies of major bioactive compounds depicted by GC-MS analysis revealed that Wogonin, a flavonoid (GLIDE Score-5.77) possessed the best inhibitory profile against β–lactamase.
Conclusion: Synergistic activity of O. indicum may be attributed to the β–lactamase inhibitory potential of the bioactive compounds present in the extract. The findings provide substantial basis for the future use of O. indicum crude extracts as potential antibacterial and antibiotic modulating agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sterility and Radiostability of Amoxicillin and Cefaclor Antibiotics Sterilized by Gamma Irradiation

Abdelgawad M. Hashem, Hala N. Elhifnawi, Sara S. Farag

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2046-2067
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12251

Aim: The present investigations aimed at studying the effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation on amoxicillin and cefaclor antibiotics. They have been irradiated in solid dry state and the probable changes in physicochemical and microbiological properties were studied
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out from 2011 to 2013 in the Drug Radiation Research Department, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority.
Methodology: Amoxicillin and cefaclor compounds in solid states were exposed to γ irradiation in air atmosphere at room temperature, with a dose of 25kGy and afterwards they had been subjected to microbiological and analytical tests checking their sterility and antibacterial activitiy it was tested against different pathogenic bacterial species by measuring MIC using Microdilution technique and microplate reader.
Then their chemical stability were evaluated by different techniques. EPR, FTIR, UV analysis, mass spectroscopy, and melting point.
Results and conclusion: The results showed that the majority of initial unirradiated compounds had a slight degree contamination with Bacillus, Micrococcus genera, and fungi. By applying γ irradiation at 25kGy it showed sterilization of the tested antibiotics and keeping their antibacterial activity. The EPR analysis results showed formation of free radicals. The other analytical tests (FTIR), (UV) analysis ,mass spectroscopy, and melting point results proved that the antibiotics analyzed are radioresistant and can be sterilized by irradiation with a dose of 25kGy, without any detrimental effect on their properities and antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Nutrient Composition and Serum Lipid Lowering Effect of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit

Yusuf N. Omeh, Samuel O. Onoja, Maxwell I. Ezeja, S. Bassey, G. Ogbenta, Ayoade B. Adetayo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2096-2105
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12392

Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Xylopia aethiopica on serum lipids in fed rats. Also the quantitative phytochemical and nutrient composition was investigated.
Study Design: Quantitative phytochemical, proximate analysis and in vivo effect on serum lipid profile.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State, between June 2013 and September 2013.
Methodology: The fruit were cut into small piece, dried and ground into powder. The quantitative phytochemical and proximate nutrient analyses of the powder sample were determined using standard methods. The serum lipid lowering effects of the powdered fruit in rats was determined by feeding different groups of rats with graded levels (5, 10, 20 and 50%) of the powdered fruit incorporated in their feed for 21 consecutive days and the effects on the total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and HDL-C were compared with a negative control.
Results: The fruit sample produced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent decrease in the total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels and increase in serum HDL-C level in fed groups of rats when compared to the control group. The phytochemical analysis showed that the sample contained tannins (4.96%), flavonoids (0.81%), saponins (2.93%) and alkaloids (1.24%). The proximate analysis of the nutrient composition of powdered Xylopia aethiopica sample showed the presence of moisture, lipid, crude fibre, crude protein, ash and nitrogen free extracts in the following proportion 6.32, 12.54, 14.51, 0.91, 2.31 and 63.41% respectively.
Conclusion: The fruit sample demonstrated good hypolipidemic effects which may suggest that the consumption of Xylopia aethiopica fruit may help in the reduction of the incidence of hyperlipidemia related diseases in patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial, Membrane Stabilizing and Thrombolytic Activities of Polianthes tuberose Linn

Farhana Rumi, Md. Ruhul Kuddus, Sujan Chandra Das

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2106-2115
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12414

Aims: In the present study, the crude methanol extract of tuber of Polianthes tuberosa Linn along with its all Kupchan fractions were investigated for antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, membrane stabilizing and thrombolytic activities.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for one year in 2012 in the Department of Pharmacy, Manarat International University (MIU), Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh.
Methodology: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay. Here, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as standard antioxidant. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the plant fractions were determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay as well as by the disc diffusion method, respectively. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by hypotonic solution and heat-induced methods and was compared with standard acetyl salicylic acid (ASA).
Results: In the free radical scavenging assay, the crude methanol extraxct showed significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value 71.23 μg/ml. The highest phenolic content was found in crude methanol extract (113.49 mg of GAE/gm of extractives). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, both the crude methanol extract and its carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction demonstrated strong cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 3.56 and 9.31 μg/ml, respectively compared to that of 0.451 μg/ml exhibited by standard vincristine sulfate (VS). In the disc diffusion antibacterial assay, all the plant samples showed mild to moderate activity (zone of inhibition = 9.0-15.0 mm) against test pathogens. In membrane stabilizing activity test, the plant samples at 2.0 mg/ml inhibited the isotonic solution-induced hemolysis of RBC by 65.23% and heat-induced hemolysis of RBC by 35.61%. During assay for thrombolytic activity, the crude methanol extract revealed 52.6% lysis of clot while standard streptokinase (SK) used as positive control, demonstrated 66.8% lysis of clot.
Conclusion: The plant possesses significant bioactivities which rationalize its use as folk medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties and HPLC Assay of Bioactive Polyphenols of the Ethanol Extract of Excoecaria agallocha Stem Bark Growing in Bangladesh

Ismet Ara Jahan, Hemayet Hossain, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Md. Afjalus Siraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2116-2125
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/12425

Aims: The ethanolic extract of Excoecaria agallocha stem bark was evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of bioactive polyphenols by HPLC-DAD. Methodology: ABTS assay, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were used for determining antioxidant activities.
Results: In ABTS assay, the extract showed 74.11% inhibition at 10 μg/ml and IC50 of 4.80 μg/ml, which was significant compared to ascorbic acid (12.20 μg/ml). The antioxidant capacity was calculated as 686 mg of ascorbic acid/g of extract. The maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was 0.73 at 250 μg/ml. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be significant (375.46 mg/g of gallic acid, 22.44 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively). In HPLC assay, catechin hydrate had the highest content (713.91 mg/100 g of dry extract).
Conclusion: The obtained results suggest the antioxidant activities with high concentration of catechin hydrate in the extract of Excoecaria agallocha stem bark.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Products as Potential Sources of Antidiabetic Drugs

Patience O. Osadebe, Estella U. Odoh, Philip F. Uzor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 2075-2095
DOI: 10.9734/BJPR/2014/8382

Natural products have played and continue to play an invaluable role in the treatment of various diseases and in drug discovery processes. It has remained a source of new compounds with diversified structural arrangements possessing interesting biological activities for various disease treatments. Drugs from natural products are usually considered to be safer, cheaper, easily available and sometimes more efficacious than purely synthetic ones. In recent years, scientists have been in search for safer and more potent drugs from natural sources particularly from medicinal plants. Diabetes is one of the chronic disorders which are associated with high mortality risk. The existing drugs have been identified with one or more adverse effects. In the present review, literature was surveyed to highlight the merits of natural products with regard to their role in diabetic management. Notwithstanding the seemingly decline in the natural product approach to drug discovery in favor of modern approaches such as combinatorial chemistry, literature survey has shown that a lot of research effort is still being directed to natural product in search for new antidiabetic agents. Several antidiabetic phytoconstituents have been isolated from medicinal plants and these were of chemically diversified nature which includes flavonoids, glycosides, terpens, polysaccharides and polypeptides. Based on the merits of nature based medicines, the authors advocate the use of standardized crude forms of some of the natural drugs. Further researches geared towards exploiting the vast array of natural products in our environment and development of the isolated compounds to clinically useful drugs for diabetes management is advocated.