Open Access Systematic Review Article

Diabetes and Daytime Sleeping: Systematic Review

Yasser Wadi Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 49B, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i49B36427

Background: The relationship between sleep disturbance and diabetes is dual-sided. Chronic sleep disturbance increases the chance of developing insulin resistance, while diabetes reduces sleep quality.

Objective: To address the aspects of insufficient sleep, diabetes mellitus, and their mutual interactions and interlinkages. The main objectives is to address the role and effect of diabetes on sleep. Methods: systematic review. A systematic search was done in PubMed, MEDLINE through Clarivate, Web of Science through Clarivate, and EBSCO. Studies retrieved were managed in Rayyan–Intelligent systematic reviews website for duplicate removal and screening. 

Results: DM is one of the most widespread illnesses in the world. In addition to directly disrupting sleep due to nocturia, polyuria, diabetic neuropathy, and neuropathy pain, DM has also been linked to a number of chronic illnesses, including obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular issues, hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents, and depression, all of which can lower quality of life and negatively affect sleep.  The patient may not bring the sleep issues during their visit to healthcare providers, with acute issues taking precedence during their visit.

Conclusion: DM causes night sleep disturbances which eventually lead to daytime sleeping. Sleep education should be considered an essential part in the diabetic management armamentarium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Successful Treatment of Recalcitrant Non-genital Warts (Verruca vulgaris) with a Topical Solution Containing Two Antivirals and a Low Concentration of Salicylic Acid

Ricardo de Souza Pereira, Nayana Mendes Monteiro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 49B, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i49B36426

Aims: Commercial formulas for the treatment of warts use salicylic acid in concentrations above 100 mg/ml, which causes skin irritation, and the results are often unsatisfactory. To address this problem, we developed a new formula with a low concentration of salicylic acid (20 mg/ml) and with the addition of virucidal compounds (metallic iodine and benzoic acid) and compared it to a formula currently on the market (Verrux®) containing 165 mg salicylic acid (0.165 g) and 145.2 mg lactic acid (0.145 g) per ml collodion.

Study Design: A randomized double-blind study was conducted.

Location and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, UNINCOR, Chácara das Rosas, Três Corações, MG, Brazil; School of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Amapá - Campus Universitário Marco Zero do Equador, Rod. Juscelino Kubitschek, KM-02, Jardim Marco Zero, Macapá, AP, Brazil and School of Medicine, Universidad Politécnica y Artística del Paraguay (UPAP), Km 10, Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, between December 2004 and October 2016.

Methodology: 95 patients were treated with the formula with salicylic acid (20mg), benzoic acid (20mg) and metallic iodine (2.5mg) per ml (group A) and 95 received treatment with Verrux® (salicylic acid 165mg, lactic acid 145.2mg per ml collodion) (group B).

Results: All patients in Group A (100%) reported complete resolution of signs and symptoms after 13 weeks of treatment. In contrast, 67 subjects (70.5%) in group B reported regression of symptoms during the same period.

Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups studied here (P< 0.05). This new formulation with a low level of salicylic acid and two virucidal agents promotes healing of recalcitrant cutaneous warts without significant side effects. The price of the two formulas is virtually the same (about $8 to $10 each bottle).

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Aripiprazole Oral Disintegrating Tablets

V. Navya, Srilakshmi Damagundam, Pooja Jupally, Bandaru Hemanth Kumar, Shaik Farooq Ahmed, D. Prasanthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 49B, Page 18-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i49B36429

Aim: This work aims to develop oral disintegrating tablets from solid dispersion of aripiprazole that are capable of enhancing solubility.

Methodology: Aripiprazole an antipsychotic is a BCS class IV drug with Oral bioavailability of 87%. To enhance the solubility of this drug the solid dispersions were prepared by using a combination of β-Cyclodextrin and PVP K30 in 1:1, 1:2 by using a physical mixture and solvent evaporation method. The prepared solid dispersions were analyzed for all the physical parameters and drug excipient interactions. The solid dispersion was optimized for the preparation of oral disintegrating tablets by direct compression technique using different concentrations of various natural super disintegrants namely Tapioca starch, Amorphophallus campanulactus, and synthetic super disintegrants namely Sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone.

Results: FTIR showed that the drug and excipients are compatible with each other. Among all the solid dispersion formulations SCD6 (Drug: β-cyclodextrin) shows a high percentage of drug release i.e., 98.58±0.28% for 45 min, and solubility was found to be 0.954±0.32mg/ml. Percentage practical yield was found to be 98.36±0.14% and drug content was found to be 97.31±0.04%. SCD6 formulation was optimized for the preparation of oral disintegrating tablets. The post-compression parameters of all the prepared tablets were within the limits. Among all, F3 formulations containing tapioca starch, 7.5% were found to possess a better disintegration time (28±1.52sec) and in-vitro dissolution (98.64±0.29% for 45min).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that solid dispersions of Aripiprazole incorporated in oral disintegrating tablets are a very useful approach for better release of Aripiprazole in an efficient manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insights into the In-vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Trisdimethylamino Pyrimidine Derivative in Plasmodium berghei: Infected Mouse Model

Chibuike Ernest Ikwuka, Chukwuebuka Moses Asogwa, Ozioma Jennifer Ikwuka, Jude Ebuka Ogbonna, Chinwe Mercy Onah, Christian Chukwuagozie Ohama, Charles Okeke Nnadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 49B, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i49B36430

Aims: To evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of a trisdimethylamino pyrimidine derivative synthesized by indirect methylation of p-nitrophenylacetic acid via a substituted amine or amide derivative against Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain in an in vivo Plasmodium berghei-Infected mouse model.

Methodology: Plasmodium berghei-parasitized suppressive model in Albino mice was adopted for the antiplasmodial activity evaluation. The schizontocidal activity of the compound was evaluated by a 4-day suppressive test. All the treatments (test sample, standard control and blank) were administered intraperitoneally to the mice. Parameters such as rectal temperature, packed cell volume, survival time and parasitemia were measured.

Results: The 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg doses of 2, 4, 6-trisdimethylamino-5-(4´-nitrophenyl) pyrimidine elicited a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.01) in parasitemia level in treated mice. The 40 mg/kg dose caused 97.19% suppression of parasitemia and a mean survival time of 22 days compared with 97.64% and 24 days respectively in the standard control group (artemether-lumefantrine combination, 5 mg/kg). All the treatments restored the packed cell volume to the baseline (~39.8%). A dose-dependent decrease in the rectal temperature was observed in all the treatment groups. However, only the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses of 2, 4, 6-trisdimethylamino-5-(4´-nitrophenyl) pyrimidine caused a significant decrease (p < 0.01) compared with the control.

Conclusion: The strong suppression of Plasmodium berghei in the mice treated with 2, 4, 6-trisdimethylamino-5-(4´-nitrophenyl) pyrimidine has further provided insights into the potential of the compound as a lead in the discovery of antimalarial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal and Biological Importance of Pumpkin Seeds and Its Impact on Weight

Yasmin Shaikh, Kashif Rasheed Shaikh, Ali Gul Tunio, Habibullah Shaikh, Ghulam Mustafa Dahri, Rao Irfan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 49B, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i49B36431

Aim: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of pumpkin seeds in correlation to weight gain in rabbits.

Methodology: After observing as standard inclusion and exclusion criteria, thirty healthy adult rabbits recommended in study. Calculated amount 250 mg and 500 mg of powder of pumpkin seeds given. 1stanalysis denoted as day zero. Afterward more analysis were taken twice monthly for sixty days. The blood specimens passed immediately to the DR Lab by the side at the PUMHS Nawabshah. CBC analyzed using an automatic hemoglobin analyzer. Data were statistically evaluated in groups as mean by t-test and by SPSS version 21.0. A P value of 0.05 for all comparisons counted significant.

Results: While comparing study groups with control, the mean Haemoglobin, RBCs and Platelets value at day zero were established as non-significant statistically. TLC and Weight means were significant statistically. A rising boost observed on further readings taken in all Hematological parameters. When compared with control, all the interpretation was highly significance statistically except weight which remains non-significant statistically.

Conclusion: Pumpkin seeds can be replaced by ordinary method as a best plant food supply for improving hematological markers. It bears no any side effect of weight gain or patients non- cooperation like with medical therapy because of its high cost or side effects.