Open Access Systematic Review Article

Therapeutic Error: Types and Prevention Strategies and Focus about "Look Alike/Sound Alike" and "High Risk" Drugs

Edoardo Marovino, Amelia Morgillo, Naomi Mancino, Veronica di Feo, Emanuela Genito

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48A, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48A36409

Introduction: Therapeutic errors are among the main causes of drug-related problems, in terms of enhanced toxicological or reduced therapeutic effect, and concern all stages of the drug chain, from manufacturing to prescription, dispensing and administration. Everyone, pharmacists and doctors in all settings, should be aware of how to prevent and manage them and which drugs are at greatest risk. In this article we will focus on LASA (look alike/sound alike), on FAR (high-risk drugs) and on the guidelines especially for prevention.

Methods: The article is a minireview that was written by research in paper and online on PubMed and Embase. We performed a search of any publications available in these databases between the years 1990 and 2022, using the key words: therapeutic errors, misuse / diversion of drugs, drug poisoning. After a review of the titles and abstracts, the articles chosen were considered relevant in providing evidence of the problem. We also added personal knowledge about the topic of the article and used some paper documents.

Discussion and Conclusions: Most of the errors in therapy occur during administration, due to errors in doses, posology or interactions or incorrect manipulations of pharmaceutical forms, and in dispensing, due to incorrect interpretation of the prescription or confusion on the packaging in the case of LASAs. Pharmacists and doctors but also patients themselves should pay attention to the time of prescription and doctors to the drug history not only for interactions but also to avoid making mistakes in patients who take drugs with names or packages similar to the one described above. Moreover, attention must be paid in writing the prescription, in dosage, and pharmaceutical forms. Particular attention should be paid to handling by children and to avoiding any misuse of the medicines themselves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Approaches for Detection of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Associated Risk Factors among General Population

Kashif Bashir, Muhammad Amir, Muhammad Idrees, Muhammad Ajmal Khan, Sajjad Ali, Sufaid Khan, Zuhair Hassan, Sobia Ismail, Huda Ayesha, Ihsanul Haq, Muhammad Hassan, Hina Ahsan, . Aminullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48A, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48A36408

GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a molecular technique for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This method not only detects M. tuberculosis but also identifies the absence or presence of different drug resistant mutations in DNA fragments like rifampicin resistance. In this study, about 200 septum samples were collected from tuberculosis suspected people of Isfandyar Bukhari District Head Quarter Hospital Attock for screening and determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. The samples were screened for the presence of M. tuberculosis using Fluorescence Microscopy staining followed by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The results were further confirmed by Line Probe Assay and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960 techniques. In a total of 200 samples, 45(22.5%) were found positive, 155 (77.5%) were classified negative on culture while 38(19%) were positive and 162(81%) were negative on FM, 33(16.5%) were positive and 167(83.5%) were negative on ZN staining microscopy and 47(23.5%) were noted positive and 153 (76.5%) were negative on GeneXpert. The overall sensitivity of GeneXpert was 07% higher than that of smear microscopy and 4.2 % higher than culture.Different risk factors reported for TB are; malnutrition (23.40%), health care workers (14.89%), immunosuppression (12.76%), unimmunized with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and contact with infected persons (10.63%), diabetes mellitus (8.51%), poverty and foreign-born children are (4.2%). It is concluded that the most common risk factor for TB was malnutrition (23.40%) and the foreign-born children (4.2%) were least affected. GeneXpert assay for identification of tuberculosis was found more sensitive than fluorescence microscopy and for isolation of MTB and rifampicin resistance, GeneXpert RIF assay can efficiently be usedwhich is simple, robust and efficient with minimum handling technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Mineral Levels in Postmenopausal Women Compared to Premenopausal Women Living Within Port Harcourt Metropolis

Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor, Waribo, Helen Anthony, Anyalebechi, Eberechukwu Okwuchi, Maduelosi, Ngozi Jane, Maduelosi, Emmanuella

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48A, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48A36410

Aim: The physiological transformation of women from pre to post-menopause is often accompanied with many changes in biochemical parameters which instigates some physiological alterations in the body system of the women. Research has shown some alterations in trace mineral nutrition and metabolism following attainment of menopause. This study was aimed at investigating the trace mineral status in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Port-Harcourt metropolis.

Methods: This study was carried out among fifty (50) apparently healthy postmenopausal women aged between 45-65 years and twenty (20)   premenopausal women aged between 22-38 years. Five milliliters (5 mL) of venous blood was withdrawn from each participant after an informed consent was obtained. Blood samples were emptied into a plain tube and allowed to clot. Samples were spun and serum separated into separate tubes and stored at -200C until analysis. Serum levels of trace mineral magnesium, calcium, zinc and copper were evaluated using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer ELICO, India, Model No. SL173. Data generated were analyzed using Graph-Pad Prism version 8.0.2 and p < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Result reveal a significant reduction in serum levels of magnesium in post-menopausal women (0.39± 0.29 mmol/L) when compared with the premenopausal women (1.14 ± 0.54 mmol/L) (P< 0.0001). Similarly, the serum zinc declined in postmenopausal women 6.12 ± 6.42mmol/L compared with the premenopausal women 23.02± 12.25mmol/L (P< 0.0001). However, serum levels of copper and calcium were not statistically different in the two groups (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings in this work suggests a decrease in serum zinc and magnesium levels in postmenopausal women, hence dietary supplements of these trace minerals is advocated for post-menopausal women. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Analysis and Antiradical Activity of Five Plants Used for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Benin

S. Seton, O. Koukoui, Y. Koudoro, J. B. Amagbegnon, M. Betira, F. Sonounameto, C. P. Agbangnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48A, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48A36415

Background: Diabetes remains a real public health problem in the world today. Although considered a disease of rich countries, today diabetes is increasingly a major concern in developing countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Benin, its prevalence in 2015 was 12.4%.

Objective: This work aimed to compare the secondary metabolites, the content of phenolic compounds (total phenol, flavonoid) and the antiradical power of five plants (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Ex Wendel; Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. Ex G. Don; Mangifera indica L.; Saccharum officinarum L.; and Annona muricata L.) used in Benin by traditional healers to treat type 2 diabetes.

Materials and Methods: Secondary metabolites were identified by coloration and precipitation reactions specific to each family of metabolites. Total phenols were determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The aluminum trichloride method has been used to quantify total flavonoids. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

Results: Plants which leaves were higher in total phenols were Mangifera indica, Parkia biglobosa and Bambusa vulgaris while Annona muricata and Parkia biglobosa were the richest plants in flavonoids. The hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Bambusa vulgaris (IC50=0.28mg/mL), Parkia biglobosa (IC50=0.3mg/mL) and Mangifera indica (IC50=2.5mg/mL) showed more pronounced antiradical activity than vitamin C (IC50=3.2 mg/mL) which were synthetic antioxidant.

Conclusion: Our results showed that among the five plants studied Mangifera indica, Parkia biglobosa and Bambusa vulgaris were the richest in total phenols and also those whose leaf extracts had the highest antiradical activities. These three plants could therefore be considered as potential remedies for type 2 diabetes and its complications.

Open Access Review Article

The Epidemiology of Lung Cancer- How Much Have We Discovered?

Marwan El Bagoury, Monica Fahmy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 48A, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i48A36414

Lung Cancer has become a global health burden in the past years due to being the second largest contributor to new cases and the high mortality rates worldwide which is around 1.8 million patients. There are two main histological groups of Lung Cancer, however non-small cell lung cancer is more prevalent and is composed of three histologic subtypes of which adenocarcinoma represents the highest prevalence. It is calculated that the incidence in male is higher than female. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for developing lung cancer, however, other risk factors contribute to the increasing cases. Studying the epidemiology of lung cancer is essential to establish robust surveillance system and establish policies to reduce this global concern. In this article we will review the epidemiological data, the history of the disease, and the associated risk factors.