Open Access Systematic Review Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Predictors of Mortality Outcome in Neonatal Sepsis in KSA: Systematic Review

Abdulaziz Zaher A. Alalmaei, Abdullah Saif Alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 47B, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i47B36399

The systemic reaction to infection in newborn infants during the first 28 days of life has been referred to as neonatal sepsis. Global health issues include neonatal sepsis. Furthermore, newborn sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in underdeveloped nations. This study examined the prevalence, risk factors, aetiology, death rate, and outcomes of neonatal sepsis in newborns in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the same subject, a thorough search of the literature was done using online databases like PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. After removing 45 duplicates, a total of 119 articles were found in the initial systematic search. 25 studies were removed after title and abstract screening on 74 study papers. Only 16 papers out of 49 total items that underwent full-text evaluation met the requirements for inclusion in this meta-analysis. We took research that were released between January 1997 and December 2021. We only looked for English-language studies during our search. Neonatal sepsis is a major public health problem due to its rising occurrence; therefore, it is crucial to look at its epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics. Since gluten is now well recognised as a precipitating factor, current research is helping to better understand the other aspects of this syndrome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of HIV Post Exposure Prophylaxis among Health-Care Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Igweagu Chukwuma Paulinus, Ezugwu Uchechukwu Anthonia, Egbumike Chukwuenyegom Joseph

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 47B, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i47B36403

Background: It is impossible to overstate the significance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Post-exposure Prophylaxis (HIV PEP), which has demonstrably reduced the risk of getting the fatal disease Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is crucial for the public health to understand the effects of an HIV infection in a health care worker (HCW). Because of the risks associated with their jobs, these HCWs are more likely to contract an infection.

Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and utilization of HIV PEP among health care workers in Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTH), Parklane, Enugu State. 

Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The sample size was 204 HCWs and 200 questionnaires were returned for analysis. The sample was selected by stratified sampling technique. The data was analyzed using statistical packaged for social science (SPSS). 

Results: The study revealed that majority of the respondents were within the age range of 26-30and 31-35 years (24.5% each). Majority (65.6%) were married and most (44.0%) were nurses. About 89% have heard of HIV PEP. Almost forty-three percent (42.5%) have been accidentally exposed to needle stick injury before but only 39% reported. Even a less percentage (21%) went ahead to take PEP.

Conclusion: The study concluded that most of the correspondents were aware of HIV PEP but only a few deemed it necessary to practice what they know. Therefore, there is a great need for health education on the right approach to HIV PEP in this institution and the general population. This will go a long way to help reduce the incidence of HIV infection and improve the utilization of HIV PEP among HCWs in ESUTH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Urolithiatic Activity of Dolichos biflorus Seed Extract by Using Ethylene Glycol Induced Model

Mohibul Haque, Ali Salman Al-Shami, Sandipan Chatterjee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 47B, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i47B36405

In the phytochemical screening, it was found that Dolichos Biflorus seed extract contained the presence of tannins steroids, protein, flavonoids, terpenoids, mucilage, saponin, and carbohydrate, but no alkaloids fixed oil. So, this plant has highly diuretic activity. Which can use for the treatment of urolithiasis.

Objective: The Present study aims to investigate the anti-Urolithiatic activity of Dolichos Biflorus methanolic seed extract in a rat model.

Methods: Dolichos Biflorus Seeds Extract were evaluated for anti-Urolithiatic activity. Urolithiasis has been induced in Wistar rats through Ethylene glycol (0.75%v/v, p.o). Upon completion of the experiment, animals in all groups have been sacrificed and biochemical parameters such as; calcium, creatinine, Phosphorus, Uric acid, Alkaline Phosphatase BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), and histology of Kidney have been observed. Furthermore, Potassium, Oxalate levels, and Alanine Amino Transferases were measured.

Results: The extract of Dolichos Biflorus was proven to be safe in the toxicity findings.

It has been shown that in-vivo significant effect of plant extract was able to manage the urolithiatic markers such as calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), and potassium. In the urolithiatic rats it has been observed that abundant crystal depositions, renal epithelial cells had more tubular dilatation and damage shown by large spaces in the tissue, renal stone deposition damages the renal tissue and detoriate the renal function. Urolithiatic markers such as calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), and potassium were normal in animals receiving plant extract and prevent renal cell injury.

Conclusion: All its findings and phytoconstituents existing inside the extract must stay the viable chemical materials involved in the prevention of Urolithiatic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization of Glibenclamide Solid Dispersion Using Various Carriers

Mst. Mahfuza Rahman, Monia Akter Nupur, Ranjan Kumar Barman, Md. Rafiqul Islam Khan, Yashunori Iwao, Mir Imam Ibne Wahed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 47B, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i47B36406

Aims: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic agent exhibits inadequate aqueous solubility resulting in poor and unpredictable bioavailability. The study was designed to enhance the solubility and dissolution of glibenclamide by solid dispersion.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh between June 2017 and July 2018.

Methodology: Solid dispersions of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using mixture of PEG-8000, sodium citrate, HPMC as additives in different ratios and subsequently, in-vitro dissolution studies were performed. The characterization of solid dispersions was done by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Powder X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope.

Results: Out of twelve formulations, the GCHP-4 composed of glibenclamide: HPMC: Na-citrate: PEG-8000 1:1:1:1) demonstrated highest percentage of yield (87.76%) and encapsulation efficiency (95.68%). The maximum dissolution of glibenclamide obtained from GCHP-4 (3.34 µg/ml), which was 5.2-fold higher than that of pure glibenclamide (0.64 µg/ml) at 120 min. The mechanism of increased solubility of glibenclamide from solid dispersion might be resulted due to the conversion of its crystalline form into amorphous state and no interaction between drug and carriers which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy respectively.

Conclusion: The dissolution rate of glibenclamide was greatly increased when loaded in solid dispersions which might be responsible for the improvement of its bioavailability in aqueous medium.

Open Access Review Article

The Price of Unconsciousness: Anti-vaccines Movements and Scientific Development of Immunology

Martínez Campos Juan Francisco, Hernández Alemán Octavio, Prado Pelaez Jimena Guadalupe, Ortiz Polo Araceli, Hernández Ceruelos María del Carmen Alejandra, Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 34, Issue 47B, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i47B36404

This article presents the narrative about the importance of vaccines in public health to highlight the scientific development required and involved for their production, and their importance for health by exploring events that denote scientific development and unfounded opposition towards the immunization of the population against vaccine-preventable diseases. The corresponding literature review was carried out in online databases using the keywords: vaccines, scientific development, and denial of vaccination, vaccination, and anti-vaccines. 

Furthermore, it was found that vaccines, toxoids, and biologicals to prevent contagion or serious forms of infectious disease, whether by viruses or bacteria, are more understood than a century ago. Vaccination aroused along health policies and is recognized as one of the most cost-effective practices on the planet. Although constantly and coupled with the development and implementation of vaccination schemes, some social groups appear to oppose this practice. Being anti-vaccination is often associated to fear, religious beliefs, ignorance, and more frequently, a lack of social awareness of the responsibility to immunize minors and vulnerable groups, especially those with risk factors or co morbidities, including the current pandemic catastrophe due to covid-19. Not getting vaccinated due to the circulation of unreliable information, without scientific bases, puts the human population at risk and is often common among individuals with vulnerabilities in academic and socioeconomic sectors such as poverty, and other types of vaccine-related beliefs.