Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Working Class Women in a Teaching Hospital South East, Nigeria

Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Chisom Evelyn Ibekwe, Chinonye Onyekwuo, Chioma Vivian Ibekwe, Amarachukwu Doris Okoro, Chioma Blessing Ifezue

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36371

This research work seeks to investigate the challenges of exclusive breastfeeding among working class mothers in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi Anambra State Nigeria. The objective of the present study is to investigate the attitude of working mothers to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital, Nnewi North L.G.A., Anambra State, Nigeria. The study unravel those socio-economic determinates of exclusive breastfeeding among working mother's in Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital, Nnewi in order to give recommendations that will help improve the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Descriptive survey design was used in the study. Descriptive survey method was used to observe, describe and document aspects of the attitude of working class mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding. Data from the survey was statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 12.0). 120 mothers participated in this study; they were selected based on the inclusion criteria and their availability at the time of the survey. Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers were presented in a cross-tabulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of in vitro Quality Tests of Paracetamol Brands 500mg in Karachi, Pakistan

Hira Akhtar, Muhammad Ali, Salman Ashfaq Ahmad, Rabia Humayoon, Khwaja Zafar Ahmed, Hafiz Sohaib Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36372

Objective: The main purpose of this study is to perform the quality assessment of three different brands of Paracetamol tablets (500 mg) available in local market of Karachi, Pakistan.

Methodology: Several pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial tests were applied on selected brands coded as P1, P2 and P3, respectively. A sample of (n = 20) tablets from each coded brand were subjected to pharmacopeial tests such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, assay and dissolution and non- pharmacopeial tests such as hardness, diameter and thickness. Dissolution data were subjected to model dependent and model independent kinetic approaches using Dissolution Data solver.

Results: The Average weight in mg, hardness in kg , thickness and diameter in mm of (n=20) tablets of brands P1, P2, and P3 were noted and their standard deviation were calculated which were found to be 520.625mg (± 0.49 mg), 519.53 mg (± 0.472 mg) and 521.20 mg (±0.494mg),7.25(±0.45kg), 7.48(±0.29kg) and 6.64(±0.11kg), 4.3(±0.15mm), 3.2(±0.15mm), 3.2(±0.11mm) and 12.2(±0.13mm), 12.4(±0.14mm) and 12.6(±0.15mm). Friability of selected brands were found to be 0.37%, 0.41% and 0.26%. Disintegration time were found to be 2minutes26seconds, 2minutes56seconds and 1minute 54 seconds. Percentage Assay of (n=20) tablets of selected brands were found to be as P1= 98.97(± 0.02%), P2= 99.96(± 0.03%) and P3= 99.91(±0.02%). Dissolution were performed at multiple point intervals such as 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min and 45 min. At 45 minutes the percentage of drug release for P1, P2 and P3 were found to be 98.7%, 99.8% and 98.9%. For the determination of model independent approaches brand P2 were selected as reference formulation. Similarity factor (f2), dissimilarity factor (f1) for brand P1, and P3 were found to be 73.5, 5 and 79.5, 3. All selected brands were subjected to model dependent approaches. In this study all tablets of selected brands P1, P2 and P3 followed First order and weibull model as the r2 values for first order were (0.9897), (0.9893) and (0.9837) and for weibull model r2 values were found to be (0.9937), (0.9953) and (0.9915).

Conclusion: In this study successful application of Pharmacopeial and non Pharmacopeial tests on three different selected brands in Karachi, Pakistan were carried out however further work is recommended on large sample. Results were found to be in limit in accordance to the United States Pharmacopeia. Invitro multiple points interval dissolution studies were conducted at phosphate buffer pH 5.8 the data were subjected to several kinetic models by the application of Dissolution Data (DD solver) an add in program in Excel to determine release kinetics. Study demonstrated that all selected brands of Paracetamol 500 mg tablets followed first order kinetics and weibull model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plaque Control Efficacy: Interdental Brushes versus Dental Floss

Madiha Sultan, Saima Qureshi, Asher Jamelle, Saqib Rashid, Mehwish Feroz Ali, Umair Khero

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36373

Aims: In this study, we compared plaque control efficacy between interdental brushes & dental floss for the prevention of periodontal disease (gingivitis). We also investigated the convenient method for plaque control among these two interdental cleaning methods in routine.

Study Design:  Randomized clinical trial

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Periodontology at Fatima Jinnah Dental College and Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from Jan 2019 to July 2020.

Methodology: The sample size of 180 was calculated using OpenEpi software each group (Interdental brush & Dental floss) carried 90 patients respectively at 95% confidence interval and 80% power of the test. Probability sampling technique was used. The Clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (Identifier: NCT05439785). Ethical approval was taken from the Ethical Review Committee of Ziauddin University (1130519MSOM). SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the study data. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: The statistical results showed significant improvement in the plaque score and bleeding index among patients pre and post intervention (p <0.001). Moreover, this study stated that interdental brush was slightly better in reducing interproximal plaque accumulation in patients of gingivitis (p <0.001). The symptom of bleeding from the gingival tissue was also improved by using both interdental cleaning methods.  The posterior region appeared to be a difficult site to use both the intervention (interdental brushes or dental floss). Both interdental cleaning methods assisted in the improvement of other symptoms like sensitivity, halitosis, and food impaction in the patients.

Conclusion: The findings of our research revealed that both interdental cleaning methods had a statistically significant effect in removing interdental plaque, with little variation in plaque removal seen between interdental brush and dental floss when compared to baseline. This study endorses better outcome of interdental brush in reducing dental plaque accumulation than dental floss in the gingivitis patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking of Mangrove Plant as Therapeutic Agent to Treat Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

Haidar Ali Hamzah, Putri Mahirah Afladhanti, Muhammad Despriansyah Romadhan, Dessy Agustini, Raehan Satya Deanasa, . Theodorus

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36375

Background: Cancer is one of the biggest health problems worldwide, with lung cancer as the first rank in the number of new cases and deaths. Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that accounts for about 85% of all lung cancer cases. Previous research identified the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as the most suitable target to treat NSCLC. This study aims to identify the potential compounds derived from mangrove plants as agents to treat NSCLC using a molecular docking study.  

Methodology: Six natural compounds, which include taraxasterol, stigmasterol, tretinoin, heritonin, ascochitine, and tricin, along with gefitinib as a drug comparative were used. Docking was carried out on EGFR as a receptor target by Autodock Tools. The visualizations of molecular interactions were carried out by BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2020. 

Results: The results showed that all six compounds were compiled from several criteria as drugs based on Lipinski analysis and had an affinity to EGFR receptors. The docking results were found in the order of stigmasterol (-11.84 kcal/mol), taraxasterol (10.80 kcal/mol), tretinoin (-10.60 kcal/mol), tricin (-9.24 kcal/mol), ascochitine (-7.85 kcal/mol), heritonin (-7.81 kcal/mol), and gefitinib (-8.62 kcal/mol). Among these natural compounds, stigmasterol exhibited the highest binding affinity. ADME profile showed that these natural compounds are safe and drug-like compounds. 

Conclusion: Stigmasterol exhibited the highest binding energy of -11.84 kcal/mol. All three compounds bind in the binding pocket of EGFR. All compounds have drug-likeness properties based on Lipinski rules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Gmelina arborea on the Bovine Parasite Onchocerca ochengi

Mando Ndou Bertrand, Bambe Raymond, Djongra Mathieu, Koga Mang-Dobara, Ndjonka Dieudonné

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36378

Aims: This study was aimed at analyzing the phytochemical constituents, evaluated the in vitro filaricidal activities of the ethanolic extracts of G. arborea on Onchocerca ochengi and carried out the acute and sub-acute toxicity on rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The work took place at the Laboratory of Applied Zoology of the Faculty of Science of the University of Ngaoundere between June 2020 and April 2021.

Methodology: Quantitative determination of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins were performed by using standard titration curve of gallic acid and rutin. The adult male worms of O. ochengi were incubated in Roosevelt Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640) medium supplemented with antibiotics containing different concentrations of the plant extracts and ivermectin (positive control). The mortality of worms was evaluated using the MTT/formazan colourimetry test after 24 h and 48 h. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests of G. arborea were evaluated on rats according to OECD 425 and 407 respectively.

Results: The quantitative phyto-constituents screening revealed that total phenols (873.33 ± 3.33 mg GAE/g) were the most quantified compound followed by tannins (229.33 ± 0.33 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (116 ± 1.01 mg RE/g) in the roots of the plant. 0.22 ± 0.02 mg/mL, 0.17 ± 0.00 mg/mL, 0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL were respectively the LC50 of hydroethanolic extracts of the leaves, barks, roots and ivermectin at 48 h. The acute and sub-acute toxicity test showed no toxicity in rats.

Conclusion: Looking at the result, the extracts of this plant may be used in novel drug discovery to fight against onchocerciasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Severity of Splenic Trauma and Its Surgical Outcome among Patients Presented at Liaquat University Hospital, Pakistan

Suhail Ahmed Soomro, Riaz Ahmed Shah, Abdul Sattar Abro, Mushtaq Ahmad Abbasi, Muhammad Fahim Ahsan, Shahnawaz Khatti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36380

Objective: To determine the severity of splenic trauma and its surgical outcome among patients presented with abdominal blunt trauma at surgical emergency of Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro (Hyderabad)

Material and Methods: This prospective case series study was conducted in the department of Surgery at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, from December 2013 to November 2014. Patients having a diagnosis of abdominal trauma with a diagnosis of splenic injury, aged above 18 years and both genders were included. All the patients underwent surgical treatment as per indications. Patients were monitored during hospital stays to assess the outcome. A study proforma was employed to gather data and SPSS software version 20 was utilized for the analysis of it.

Results: The study included 60 patients; their mean age was 28.3±12.4 years. Most of the cases 51(84.9%) were between 18 and 40 years of age. Males were predominant with a male to female ratio of 3.1:1. The majority of the cases (48.3% and 33.3%, respectively) had Grade III and Grade IV injuries, and none of our patients were diagnosed as Grade V by the scan. Overall among 30 cases, developed complications, particularly as 10 cases had pulmonary infection, 08 cases had intra-abdominal bleeding, wound infection was in 9 and 1 had developed over-whelming post splenectomy (OPSS). The overall mortality rate was 5.0%.

Conclusion: Splenic trauma and its severity in patients having blunt abdominal trauma were observed to be the most frequent. A better outcome has been observed, and it is also depending on the immediate arrival, accurate diagnosis, surgeons' ability, and experience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Development and in vitro Assessment of Flurbiprofen Microemulsion Gel for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Heera Battu, Nimmathota Madhavi, K. Nithiyanand Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36381

The aim of current research is to develop flurbiprofen microemulsion gel for transdermal delivery. To prepare a microemulsion oil, surfactant and co-surfactant selection is one of the important criteria. Selected to prepare different ratios of oil and surfactant mixture using ternary phase diagram. Based on results of physicochemical properties, we have optimized one formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation incorporated into carbopol P 934 gel base. The In vitro diffusion of drug release shown maximum (98.6% in 12hrs) for prepared microemulsion gel than marketed gel (60.5% in 16 hrs).

Open Access Review Article

Ayurvedic Shodhan Treatment Approach for the Management of Ksheenshukra (Oligozoospermia)

Lokesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Katara, Sonal Chaturvedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i46A36376

The main cause of a childless couple's lack of societal support is the depressing ignorance and maltreatment of the causes of childlessness and its treatment. Childless couples are socially and emotionally vulnerable in many parts of the world because of this isolation. The pressure to become pregnant may be directed at women in various societies, and she is frequently the one who suffers the most from its effects. One of the primary reasons for male infertility is low sperm count (oligozoospermia), which is associated with Ksheena Shukra (oligozoospermia). Before administering Vajikarana medications, Shodhana procedures must be carried out, especially because Virechana Karma has been recommended in cases with Shukra Dushti [1].