Open Access Systematic Review Article

Use of Liquid Pharmaceutical Forms and Correct Handling of Solid Forms in the Dysphagic Patient

Edoardo Marovino, Amelia Morgillo, Marcello Mazzarella, Maria Francesca Randazzo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36358

Introduction: The presence of dysphagia is a rather common event, both physiologically in elderly people and the presence of neurological, maxillofacial, or upper digestive pathologies. Many drugs are routinely taken in solid form for the convenience of use, however, in such patients, it becomes difficult to swallow tablets or capsules and it is important to both have liquid alternatives and possibly handle the solid forms correctly. In this article, we want to describe the correct handling of solid pharmaceutical forms or the transition to liquid ones where present.

Methodology: the article was written by integrating one's knowledge of pharmacology and pharmaceutical techniques with printed material and online articles extracted from databases google scholar and PubMed.

Discussion and Conclusions: The liquid forms, where they exist, are important in the management of drug therapy in the dysphagia patient. In the absence of therapeutic alternatives or liquid forms of the same principle, the solid forms can be manipulated within certain limits, paying attention to the interactions with nutritional mixtures and other drugs and above all not obstructing the probe and not compromising the kinetic and dynamic characteristics of the active ingredient.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Assessment of the Allium sativum and Tamarix aphylla Comparative and Combined Antioxidant Potential

Shahid Ullah, Fahim Ullah Khan, Laiq Zaman, Saira Abbas, Mir Sadiq Shah, Jamil Ur Rehman, Autif Hussain Mangi, Abdu Razzaq Khan, Batab Khan, Surayia Shahab Rani, Sana Gul, Adnan khattak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36359

Many diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus, are caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Allium sativum (Garlic) contains vitamins A, B, and C, as well as effective drugs like insulin, alliin, mineral salts, mucilages, allicin, and volatile oils. Garlic has antioxidant properties which showed a therapeutic effect on some cancer types. The overall goal of this study was to conduct pharmacological testing to assess the combined antioxidant abilities of Allium sativum (cloves) methanolic and Tamarix aphylla (leaves) extracts. The extract demonstrated garlic activities in a dose-dependent manner, with scavenging activity of 21, 32, and 39% at different concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL.

The antioxidant activity of Tamarix aphylla methanolic extract was 29, 37, and 62% using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay at different concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL. However, combining extracts revealed the greatest scavenging activity at various concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL. By using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the combined methanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla and Allium sativum demonstrated substantial antioxidant activity of 45, 65, and 75% at concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL. According to our findings, the combined therapy of Tamarix aphylla and Allium sativum significantly inhibited DPPH free radicals. Tamarix aphylla and Allium sativum combined therapy may play an important role in the inhibition of free radicals that cause cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception, Patterns and Facts: A Study Based on Hand Hygiene among Pharmacy Clerkship Students during COVID-19 Epidemic in Karachi

Maqsood Ahmed Khan, Saira Shahnaz, Shazia Alam Khan, Mehwish Murad Ali, Faiza Khan, Sana Ghayas, Sadia Suri Kashif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36363

Aims: The objective of the study is to explore the knowledge and attitude towards hand hygiene practices among 4th year and 5th year clerkship pharmacy students in a private medical university in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methodology: A cross- sectional study was conducted for the period of 2 months (November 2020- December, 2020). A well-structured questionnaire was developed to determine the current habit of students’ hand hygiene. The statistical data assimilation recorded through SPSS version 20 to integrate numerical significance.

Results: Questionnaire was distributed to 193 students out of which, one hundred Eighty (n=180/193) students participated in this study (response rate 93.26%. Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had few misconceptions. The hand sanitizing practices while encountering patient or prior to patient’s contact showed the 88.3% correct answers. In our study the 75% of participants correctly answered that “traditional hand washing (apply enough soap to cover and rub hands and clean in between the fingers using water) can help stop picking up infections and spreading them to others.” The current study showed that 82.2 percent Healthcare providers are educating patients and their families about hand hygiene and its importance, the 23.3% negative response was collected in context to inspected the particular World Health Organization (WHO) and center of disease control (CDC)rules for hand cleanliness.

Conclusion: The current study showed that students had adequate knowledge regarding the importance of hand hygiene. However, there were few students who had inadequate knowledge related to WHO and CDC rules for hand cleanliness which can improve by providing appropriate education and guidance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Hydroxyurea on Blood Transfusion Rate in Patients of Beta-Thalassemia Major

Sumair Memon, Ikram Din Ujjan, Humaira Ashraf, Tasneem Memon, Faria Sana, Shujaullah Talib

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36364

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of hydroxyurea on the blood transfusion rate in patients with beta-thalassemia major.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was held in the Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology/Pathology at LUMHS Jamshoro, and Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, in Hyderabad, Sindh from February 2015 to August 2015. Patients with beta thalassaemia major, diagnosed with Hb electrophoresis, who had Hb less than 7 g/dl and were regularly transfused every two to four weeks were included. Patients were divided into two groups in equal numbers. Half of the patients underwent blood transfusion with the treatment of hydroxyurea and half without hydroxyurea. In comparison to those who did not receive hydroxyurea treatment. The ability to keep haemoglobin levels over 9 g/dl or a lowering of at least 50% from the initial transfusion needs were considered signs of therapeutic success. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 26.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 11.02+3.93 years and males were in the majority (68.0%). In 56.2% of cases, there was a positive family history. The mean serum ferritin level was 12824.39+300.60 ng/ml and the mean haemoglobin level was 7.52+1.67 gm/dl. Some patients did not report follow-up, because some families had migrated to other areas of Sindh, and some cases went to other welfare hospitals/ centers, for treatment. Therefore, out of 40 patients, 30 were observed with hydroxyurea, and overall, this treatment showed a significant decrease in blood transfusion requirements (P-0.01).

Conclusion: As per the study’s conclusion, hydroxyurea was observed to be the most effective treatment to decrease the blood transfusion rate, but patients should be treated under proper and responsible observation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia gummi-gutta Linn by HFD with Low Dose STZ Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus on Rats

G. Sivakumar, Solly Varghees

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36365

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of methanolic leaf extract of Garcinia gummi-gutta Linn. by HFD with low dose STZ induced T2DM on rats.

Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups of six animals, and HFD was induced for 8 weeks. After 4th week of HFD treatment, type-II diabetes was induced by a single dose of 35mg/kg (i.p) STZ, hyperglycemia was confirmed by the elevated levels of blood glucose determined at 72h and the animals with blood glucose concentration (< 250mg/dl) were used for the study. The In vitro anti-diabetic activity was done by the DNS method.

Results: The In vitro anti-diabetic activity by α-amylase inhibition activity by DNS method was very mild as compared to Acarbose and the IC50 value of Acarbose was very low (170.84µg/ml) than MEGG (1989.59µg/ml). However, potent In vivo anti-diabetic activity (P<0.001) was observed after induction HFD with low dose STZ induced T2DM rats at the end of the 8th week, blood sugar level for MEGG high dose (173.40 ± 14.9mg/dl) was found to be almost same as that of standard drug Glibenclamide (164.60 ± 3.21mg/dl) as compared to control (287.90 ± 1.52). The lipid profile of the study showed a marked increase in TC, LDL, TG, and reduction in HDL in HFD with low dose STZ diabetic rats, whereas in MEGG and standard drugs treated by Glibenclamide were found to be substantially decreased and a fair amount of improvement in HDL level (P<0.001). Histologically, focal necrosis was observed in the diabetic rat pancreas whereas on standard and test mild and no evidence of necrosis were observed respectively, similar positive results were found in liver and adipocyte histology for standard and test groups against the HFD with STZ-induced group

Conclusion: Therefore MEGG possesses potent In vivo anti-diabetic effect as well as hypolipidemic effect and therefore MEGG might be a potent phytochemical alternative to prevent and treat T2DM and atherosclerosis and also to reduce its associated complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Observational Study of Covid-19 Cases and Off-label Drugs to Manage Complications during First and Second Wave

Sushantha Kumar Das, Nanditha Doddikindi, Prathyusha Thoda, Shashank Jindam, Sai Harshitha Vajenepalli, T. Rama Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36366

Background: Initially Covid-19 complication treatment was almost nil and focused only on supportive measures. Various off-label drugs were utilized globally to obtain better outcomes; the same was practiced by the Indian healthcare fraternity. We have aimed to review the utilization of off-label medicines like Vitamin C, Azithromycin, Ivermectin, Doxycycline, Low Molecular Weight Heparin, Zinc, Remdesivir, Dexamethasone, etc. prescribed in Covid-19 nodal hospital of Telangana state, India.

Methodology: A retrospective review and prospective observational study were conducted in the Covid-19 units of Gandhi medical college and hospital, Secunderabad between December 2020 and May 2021. The study was conducted after obtaining the necessary permission. In a retrospective review; previously published reports were analyzed to correlate the off-label medicine prescription for Covid-19 complications. Prospective case analysis was performed to access the outcome of drugs prescribed in Covid-19 complication and identified as off-label.

Results: A total of 60 prescriptions were analyzed. Among these; Vitamin-C, Dexamethasone, and Azithromycin were prescribed in 67%, 43%, and 37% cases respectively. The study further revealed that hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the two most commo  comorbidities that lead to hospitalization and subsequently required aggressive treatment to manage the Covid-19 related complications. Bilateral pneumonia was the most frequently appearing complication and therefore Dexamethasone and Azithromycin were listed as top off-label drugs to manage the same.

Conclusion: Due to the lack of specific treatment available initially to manage Covid-19 complications, off-label medicines not only aided enormously in recovering from the complication but also demonstrated to the world that the right choice of off-label medicine can greatly reduce the risk.

Open Access Review Article

Phytoconstituents and Therapeutic Aspects of Neem (Azardirachta indica): A Review

Nandita Mandi, Reena Sharma, . Sushma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36367

It has been centuries since neem plant is known to have medicinal importance to the humans. Whole plant parts have uncountable properties such as anti-bacterial, anti-malarial, anti- fungal, and anti-cancerous. Worldwide the extract from different parts of this plant is being used in many herbal and allopathic medicines. It enriches skin and prevent any kind of skin infection. The phytoconstituents such as azadiractin and nimbidin are found in seed oil extract that possesses anti-malarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Neem plant also shows great potential to increase the metabolic activity and improves the immunity of the human beings. This review gives a detail overview about the various phytoconstituents present in different parts of neem plant, their effectiveness to cure various diseases and the recent worldwide development in use of this plant.

Open Access Review Article

Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Dolichandrone Species: A Review

P. Thirupathy Kumaresan, N. Venkateshan, M. Dhineshmani, M. R. Junuha, G. Shifama, Uma, T. Kateeja Beevi, T. Sri vaishnavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45B36368

Previously conducted study confirmed that Dolichandrone species showed antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and antinociceptive properties, as well as anti-cancer, thrush therapy, and fish poisoning effects. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of the Dolichandrone genus.