Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Medicinal Importance of Catharanthus roseus

S. Anjumole, Reena Sharma, . Sushma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36350

In present times, large numbers of medicinal plants are available. Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) is also an abundant source of medicinal properties. This legendary splendid plant provided the path for new research works. Scientists had discovered the constitution of phytochemicals and its pharmacological importance. It has prolific varieties having great aesthetic value. This evergreen herbaceous plant is mainly used for its antioxidant, anticancerous, wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Several alkaloids, flavonoids and phenol compounds are present in it. Two unique indole alkaloids are possessed by Madagascar periwinkle which are vinblastine and vincristine. Catharanthus is widely used as an ornamental plant and as well as for pharmacological purposes. Now a days, many research reports are coming out about its pharmacological properties. The presence of invaluable phytochemicals in these plants leads to the discovery of effective medicines to cure various diseases. The main agenda of this review paper is to deliver the pharmacological aspects of Catharanthus rosea plant and its present need. Here, a brief description is given about most of the phytochemicals identified in Catharanthus roseus and their medicinal importance that will be helpful for future research studies on this plant.

Open Access Minireview Article

An Overview of Pharmacological Efficacy and Chemical Moieties of Strobilanthes ciliata Nees. (Acanthaceae)

Anusree Prakash, . Nishtha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36357

The expensive modern drugs have been replaced by medicinal plants these days. Strobilanthes ciliata Nees as called “Sahachara” is mainly used in the Indian system of drug and medicine and has shown biochemical activities that are – anti-microbial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic. In ayurvedic preparation roots and leaf of the Strobilanthes is a main ingredient which removes of inflammation and pain, compounds such as betulin, lupeol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glycosides etc. has been reported from the stem extract. The major component present in the plant’s various parts is lupeol, which has a broad pharmacological potential. The phytoconstituents or the phytochemicals along with biological activities contribute for the medicinal importance of this plant. This review paper tends to cover information available on various studies of medicinal values and chemical constituents of S. ciliate Nees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Face Mask - Benefits and Risks during the COVID 19 among Outpatients

S. Sri Sudev, A. Jothi Priya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36348

The public is quickly becoming more aware of the fact that wearing a face mask prevents the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The use of a mask alone is insufficient to provide an effective level of protection against COVID-19; masks should be used as part of a complete strategy of actions to suppress transmission and save lives. Keep yourself safe if COVID-19 is spreading in your neighbourhood by following a few easy safety steps, including as keeping a physical distance, donning a mask, keeping rooms well-ventilated, avoiding crowds, washing your hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue. The research around the general public's usage of masks to prevent COVID-19 transmission is developing quickly. In the course of this narrative review, we create an analytical framework to understand the use of masks, synthesising the pertinent literature to provide information on a number of topics, including population impact, transmission characteristics, source control, wearer protection, sociological considerations, and implementation considerations. COVID-19 is known to spread mostly through respiratory particles, and it can spread from presymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and asymptomatic people. Limiting connections with sick individuals by physical separation and other precautions, as well as lowering the risk of transmission per encounter, are necessary for preventing the spread of disease. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected respiratory particles in both laboratory and clinical contexts. When compliance is high, wearing a mask in public helps to stop the infection from spreading. Given these shortages of medical masks, we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an efficient kind of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and obtained in-tuned with tracing strategies. The aim of this paper is to analyze and critically discuss the regulations, which require protective masks in public to conform to similar regulations already in place in other countries.Self structured questionnaire was prepared and circulated among a sample size of 100 adults and the result was analysed using software IBM SPSS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Typing of Dermatophytes Isolated from Pupils and Staff Members of Some Selected Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria

Nwanneamaka Samuel Nwankpa, Ifeoma Bessie Enweani-Nwokelo, Nneka Regina Agbakoba, Bright Chukwuebuka Unaeze

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36349

Dermatophytes are the fungal pathogens of human and animals infecting the keratinized tissues of the body namely skin, hair and nails. They include species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. This study was aimed at molecular typing  of dermatophytes isolated from school pupils and staff members of some selected Schools in Anambra East and Ayamelum L.G.As of Anambra State in Nigeria. One thousand (1000) samples  (scalp/hair, nail, feet, glabrous skin and groin/perianal) were collected from pupils and staff members of both gender and age bracket of  (1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30 etc ) years that showed visible signs of skin infection located in these two Local Government Areas. Standard procedures were employed in processing of test samples and inoculation on dermatophyte test medium. The plates were incubated at room temperature (25 – 270C) for 7 – 10days for observation of fungal growth. Colonial, morphology, and molecular studies and sequencing were used for identification. Sensitivity was performed using sterilized discs (6mm) prepared from whatman No. 1 filter paper, impregnanted with different concentrations (25mg, 50mg, 100mg and 200mg) of terbinafine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole and griseofulvin dissolved in 2% dimethylsuphuroxide (DMSO). Molecular studies were used as confirmatory tests on dermatophytic isolates using Sanger sequencing method. The results show that the dermatophytic isolates includes: Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audounii, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermorphyton flocossum. Results also revealed the nucleotide sequences of the dermatophytes and genetic relationships between isolated dermatophytes from different pupils and schools. PCR-RFLP was used as gold standard for the diagnosis and Confirmation of Source of infection of dermatophytes and can aid in initiating prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy. Phylogenetic tree was drawn to show the relationships between the isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcomes of Intraplaque Verapamil Injection for Treatment of Peyronie’s Disease

Faraz Ahmed, Saddam Hussain, Muhammad Hassam Ullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36352

Objective: To determine the outcomes of intraplaque verapamil injection for treatment of Peyronie's disease.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes & efficacy of intraplaque verapamil injection in Peyronie’s disease management.

Methods: The quasi experimental study was conducted from July 2018 to July 2019 on a group of 26 subjects suffering from Peyronie's disease. After detailed history, complete physical and genital examination, the diagnosis was confirmed. After informed consent, questionnaires regarding pain and sexual satisfaction of patients were filled. All patients received verapamil injections on weekly basis for a period of 10 weeks.  After that, all necessary variables were recorded and data analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Results: Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 30-65 years. 26.9 % patients were in the range of 51-55 years old. 53.8% patients got no effect of intralesional injection of verapamil on pain while pain relieved in 38.5% of patients  & 7.7% patients experienced an increased in pain intensity after 10 weeks of intralesional injection of verapamil. 61.5%of patients satisfied with their sexual life after 10 week of injections & 30.8% of patients remained unsatisfied with their sexual life while in 7.7%of patients symptoms aggravated. 53.8% of patients experienced no change in size of lesion and curvature of penis, while 30.8% got less than 50% reduction in size of lesion while 15.4% of patients got more than 50% reduction in size after 10 weeks.

Conclusion: This study concluded the efficacy of Verapamil injection for management of Peyronie’s disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Liquisolid Haloperidol Tablets

Aya M. Eisa, Nagia A. El-Megrab, Hanan M. El-Nahas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36353

Aim: The aim of this study was to design fast dissolving tablets (FDT) of the anti -psychiatric drug, Haloperidol in liquisolid forms as a way to enhance its dissolution profile and anti-psychiatric effect.

Methodology: Solubility studies of Haloperidol in various solvents and surfactants were conducted. The solvent with high solubilizing ability was tween 20 (80%), selected and absorbed into the carrier and then coating material added with other solid powder excipients, finally all powder compressed into tablets. The resulting liquisolid tablets were evaluated according to British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.) specifications. Pre- and post-compression studies were performed to determine the flow properties and evaluate the liquisolid systems, followed by in vivo studies through forced swimming test (FST).

Results: Pre-compression studies showed adequate flowability and compatibility of liquid and solid excipients with haloperidol. The selected liquisolid tablet (LS4) demonstrated the best disintegration and water absorption ratio in addition to satisfactory friability and hardness. Attempts of in vivo dissolution results and thermodynamic stability studies showed acceptable results for the F4 formulation containing 80% Tween 20,Avicel and aerosel (0.22:81.6:10.2%), respectively. The in vivo study of (LS4) formulation revealed the highest immobility time to rats compared to control rats and others treated with purchased halonace®.

Conclusion: Fast dissolving liquisolid tablets expressed rapid onset of action with enhanced anti-psychiatric effect of haloperidol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi Drug Resistance: A Continuous Challenge by a Century Old Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Nasreen Qazi, Shah Nawaz Jamali, Ayesha Aftab, Imran Ahmed, Sadat Memon, Gunesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36354

Background: Tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculous bacillus. Anti-tuberculous drugs are drugs used to treat tuberculosis which include first line anti-tuberculosis drugs used to treat tuberculosis initially when the infection is non-resistant these include Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol. Second line anti-tuberculosis drugs which are used to treat resistant tuberculosis or when first line drugs are contraindicated these include Ethionamide, Capreomycin, ciprofloxacin etc. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is tuberculosis not responding to 2 first line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Methods: This study was aimed at determining the frequency of MDR pattern in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases. The design was cross sectional and the study was conducted at Tuberculosis and chest diseases Center Mirpur Khas in 2017 over two years.

Results: Total 458 MDR patients were evaluated 252(55%) females and 206(45%) were males. Isoniazid and Rifampicin were resistant in 97 (21.17%) cases while Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Rifampicin were found to be resistant in 40(8.73%) cases. The resistance for Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin was observed in 50(10.92%) cases whereas 60(13.10%) patients were resistant to Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Streptomycin. Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Rifampicin and Streptomycin were resistant in 75(16.38%) cases. Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Rifampicin and Streptomycin resistance was seen in 40(8.73%) patients and 96(20.96%) of the cases shoed resistance to Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin.

Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is highly prevalent in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Repertoire of Antibody after Complete Vaccination of Covishield Concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus- 2- an Observational Study

R. S. Anusreeraj, Shaiju S. Dharan, Abhijith Biju, S. Aiswarya, R. Alfiya, Alina Rajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i45A36356

Aim: To assess the repertoire of antibody after complete vaccination of covishield concerning SARS-CoV-2.

Study Design: Observational Study.

Place And Duration of Study: The study was conducted in community area in Kerala for a duration of six months from January 2022 to June 2022.

Methodology: The study was conducted in community area using 30 samples. The participants who fulfill inclusion criteria were selected and samples were collected by convenience sampling from the community and analyzed by the DDRC (Doctor’s Diagnostic and Research Centre) by using Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The collected data was statistically interpreted using SPSS software version 26.0 and the development of antibody after complete dose of vaccination was analyzed.

Results: In this study blood samples were collected from 30 subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Out of 30 subjects, 12 were females and 18 were males. The mean interval between the doses were 91.63. All the 30 samples produced antibodies greater than 250 U/ml. The study helps to provide qualitative evidence that the vaccine produces antibody response.

Conclusion: Covid-19 vaccines are being available into public for human use after limited testing and trials. Many efforts are being directed towards development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The information made available from this study can be utilized to  prove that covishield vaccine is effective for producing antibodies. Most of the people took vaccines since it was mandatory rather than concerning its benefits. By providing evidence of antibody development after complete vaccination can improve the public attitude towards the vaccination.