Open Access Case Report

Hypercalcemia and Nephrocalcinosis in an Infant with Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis: A Rare but Potential Serious Clinical Condition

Jennifer N. Nongrum, Anuragsingh Chandel, Smita Jategaonkar, Manish Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36298

Background: Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is a panniculitis characterized by the presence of violaceous subcutaneous nodules and indurated plaques on the back, buttocks, proximal extremities, or cheeks. It is a self-limiting benign condition sometimes associated with hypercalcemia that can lead to serious complications such as seizures, failure to thrive and renal failure. It usually develops in full term neonates who experienced some perinatal stress. The literature shows that hypercalcemia is found in nearly 51% of infants, with 95% of the infants developing it within 60 days of onset of skin  lesions.

Clinical Description: In this case, we describe a full-term female infant presented to us with failure to thrive at 2 months of age with a postnatal history of meconium aspiration syndrome. On further evaluation, child was found to have hypercalcemia, anemia and bilateral nephrocalcinosis.

Management & Outcome: The clinical findings and lab investigations were consistent with subcutaneous fat necrosis with hypercalcemia as its main complication. Child was successfully treated with oral corticosteroids.

Conclusion: Being a rare clinical condition, it is important to consider it as a differential diagnosis in infants with significant perinatal stress and hence this case report.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Effect of Surface Treatments on Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Titanium: A Literature Review

Reem Ahmed Alzahrani, Ammar Turki Wali, Shaima Fahad Alamri, Ibraheem Talal Bedaiwi, Fetoon Marzoog Alrehaili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36303

Objectives: The aims of this literature review are to provide answers to questions on how to improve bonding between titanium and resin cement and how to further implement, in clinical practice, titanium-resin as an alternative to conventional metal–resin systems.

Material and Methods: A literature search of PubMed was conducted and eight fulfilled the search criteria, namely mentions of titanium, resin cement, bond strength, surface treatments, and luting agents. These papers were compiled for comparison and evaluated regarding the bond strength achieved with different methods.

Results: The results strongly indicate that there are possibilities to improve the adhesion methods for titanium–luting agents.

Conclusions: The combination of micromechanical and chemical surface treatments enhanced the adhesion between different resin cements and titanium. It is important to select the appropriate surface treatments of titanium regarding the type of resin cement that will be used. Utilizing titanium with resin cements for crowns and fixed partial dentures can be recommended for routine clinical use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Orthopantomogram (OPG) be a Reliable Diagnostic Aid for Mandibular Measurements over Lateral Cephalogram: A Cross-Sectional Study

Shyma Shamnad, Manjusha K. K., Abin Mohammed B. N., Nishad A., Rajesh D., Reyas Y. Rasool, Aparna M. A.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36297

Aim: To find the reliability of OPG over Lateral Cephalogram for Mandibular Body Length, Mandibular Ramal Height and Total Mandibular Length.

Materials and Methods: Pre-treatment lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram of 60 patient records within the age group of 12 to 25years were selected from the department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics, Noorul Islam College of dental science. The linear measurements of mandible such as Ramal height are measured from Condylion(Co) to Gonion(Go), total mandibular length from Condylion(Co) to Menton(Me)and body length from Gonion(Go) to Menton(Me).To improve the measurement accuracy, a digital vernier calliper will be used to measure and record the values.

Statistical Analysis: Study data obtained were entered into Microsoft Excel Software and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21, IBM Statistics, USA. Descriptive Statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation and Percentages) were obtained. Intergroup F quantitative analysis was done using the Independent-t-Test and Mann-Whitney Test with the level of significance set at 5% (p < 0.05 = Statistically Significant)

Results: The average age of the entire study group was 18.2 years. Average Mandibular body Length (ML), Ramal Height (RH), and Total Mandibular Length (TML) were traced on OPG with the Mean and Standard Deviation calculated at 87.14±4.14, 52.97±5.92 and 121.26±5.31 respectively. Whereas for the Lateral Cephalogram ML, RH, and TML were 70.16±4.70, 52.14±5.27, 107.31±5.80 respectively. Upon statistical analysis there was a significant mean difference between mandibular body length (ML) and total mandibular length (TML) with P value of 0.01 for both the parameters respectively. However, Ramal height (RH) showed no statistical difference in OPG and lateral cephalogram with P value of 0.41.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Orthopantomogram (OPG) can be used as a reliable diagnostic aid for measuring Ramal Height compared to lateral cephalogram while OPG cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic aid for measuring mandibular body length and total mandibular length.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of a UPLC Method for Determination of Mirabegron in Tablet Dosage Forms

B. Anupama, A. Viswanath, . Azizunnisa, Md. Vaseemunnisa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36299

Mirabegron is a drug that is used to treat an overactive bladder. Mirabegron activates the β3 adrenergic receptor in the bladder's detrusor muscle, causing muscular relaxation and bladder capacity expansion. A few measurement procedures have been discovered, but they are inconvenient and time-consuming. The current study developed a simple, exact, precise, and practical UPLC technique for determining the amount of Mirabegron in tablet dosage forms. For the verification of Mirabegron, a simple and specific UPLC approach is applied. On an Acquity BEH C18 (50*3.0mm. 1.7m), chromatographic separation was achieved using a versatile stage containing Potassium di hydrogen phosphate: Methanol(70:30) v/v with a detection wavelength of 254 nm. Mirabegron (r2 = 0.997) showed linearity in the 50-150 g/ml range. The amount of Mirabegron to be employed by the suggested technique matches the label exactly. The proposed technique was validated according to ICH guidelines and used to ensure that the correct amount of medication was present in the dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Oral Screen Appliance Therapy in 6-12 Year Old Children Visiting a University Dental Hospital: A Retrospective Study

Arunn Jaikumarr Ram, Mebin George Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36300

The oral screen is a versatile and simple myofunctional instrument that is used to treat dental arc deformities early in the interception. A lip training device was described as an oral screen. Oral screens can be used for people who have bad habits such as mouth breathing, chewing nails, big overjet and lip muscle hypotonus. A sample of 4355 patients of age 6-12 years visiting the hospital were taken. We reviewed patients’ records, analysed data of 7415 patients between June 2020 to March 2021 and clinical findings are recorded. Out of the sample size 4355,260 patients in the hospital database were diagnosed with orthodontic deformities and use of oral screen was recommended. The data is then tabulated in Microsoft Excel. Chi square test is used for comparison of groups. The data is analysed with the help of SPSS software. In this study we observed that 3.8% of the total patients (260) showed incidence of undergoing treatment using oral screen. Prevalence of oral screen appliance is observed to be more in age groups between 10-12 years followed by 6-9 years. Within the limitations of the study, 0.2% of the children visiting university hospital have undergone treatment using oral screen appliances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Application of Esketamine Hydrochloride in Children with Emergence Agitation under Sevoflurane Anesthesia

Wu Zhaoxia, Wen Xianjie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36301

Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of different doses of esketamine in preventing emergence agitation (EA) in children under sevoflurane general anesthesia.

Methods: 80 children who underwent elective tonsillectomy or (and) adenoidectomy in our hospital were selected. The children were allocated randomly to one of four groups receiving saline(group C), esketamine hydrochloride 0.25 mg/kg (group K0.25), esketamine hydrochloride 0.5 mg/kg (group K0.5)or esketamine hydrochloride 0.75 mg/kg (group K0.75) . The children in each group were administered the study drugs 10 minutes before the end of surgery.All children were maintained anesthesia with sevoflurane. The recovery characteristics, including the time to extubation, delivery time from the PACU, postoperative nausea and vomiting, agitation and modified CHEOPS score were recorded and analyzed.

Results: Immediately after extubation, the modified CHEOPS score and postoperative recovery agitation score of the three groups of children receiving intravenous esketamine were lower than those of group C (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference between the three groups significance (P>0.05). When leaving the PACU, the postoperative awakening agitation scores of the children in the K0.25 and K0.5 groups were lower than those in the C group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the K0.75 and C groups (P> 0.05). Compared with group C, postoperative extubation time and PACU stay time were significantly prolonged in K0.75 and K0.5 groups (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Low-dose (0.25 mg/kg) of esketamine hydrochloride can reduce the incidence of emergent agitation and postoperative pain,and has little effect on anesthesia recovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of Synthesised Azo Compounds based on β-naphthol, Catechol and Quinol Nucleus

Claudia Naa Dedei Attoh, Joseph Adu, Cynthia Amaning Danquah, Yakubu Jibira, Patrick Gyan, Emmanuel Bentil Asare Adusei, Cedric Dzidzor Amengor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42B36304

A series of 10-aryl substituted azo dyes were synthesized by coupling of β-naphthol, catechol, and quinol with different aromatic amines. The synthetic compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The characterization of the synthesized compounds was carried out by UV, IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectroscopy. 13C NMR was employed to confirm the structural identity of some of the compounds.  After screening for the presence of antimicrobial constituents in the azo compounds using HTSPOTi culture method, quinol compounds 7 [(E)-2(2nitrophenyl) diazenyl) benzene-1,4-diol] and 10 [(E)-2-(3-nitrophenyl) diazinyl) benzene-1,4-diol] were the most active in terms of broad spectrum activity against  Gram-positives [Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyrogenes (clinical strain), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212)],, Gram-negatives [Salmonella typhi (clinical strain), Escherichia coli (ATCC 251922)] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853)  and the Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.63-31.25 µg/mL. A quinol derivative, [(E)-2-(2nitrophenyl) diazinyl) benzene-1, 4-diol], exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity in the heat-denatured egg albumin assay. Compounds [ethyl (Z)-4-(3-hydroxynapthalen-1-yl (diazinyl) benzoate] and (E)-2-((3-nitrophenyl) diazenyl) benzene-1,4-diol showed high DPPH free radical scavenging activity during the antioxidant assay.