Open Access Systematic Review Article

Criteria for Selecting Special Health Care Needs Patients under General Anesthesia in Dental Treatment: A Systemic Review

Nourah Al-Lwemi, Nuha Al-Shalabi, Noor Al-Basheeti, Hafsa Yasser, Shahzeb Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36288

Aims: To investigate the available evidence on how to decide whether your special health care needs patient needs GA for dental treatments or not.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric dentistry department, Riyadh Elm University, between January 2021 and May 2021. 

Methodology: A systematic search was conducted in four electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and SDL. The search was restricted to articles published between 2005 and 2020. Publications reporting on the special health care needs patient’s dental treatment were included. The papers were analyzed regarding title and abstract contents to eliminate the ones that were out of context and not relevant to the review.

Results: The search strategy resulted in 99 unique and potentially relevant articles. In total, 6 publications which include 5 retrospective articles and one cross-sectional study were selected.

Conclusion: The main standards for selecting patients for hospitalized dental treatments include a full analysis of SNP including their medical history, behavior and emotional factors, oral health status, allergies, social and non-clinical factors, and caregivers’ factors. It is important for general dentists and families of these patients to be acquainted with the procedure, its need, and its contraindications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Lipophilic Fractions of Raw Material Crataegus Rivularis Nutt

K. Enikeeva, S. Khasanova, N. Kudashkina, D. Suleymanova, A. Urakov, L. Lovtsova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36287

Aims: study of the composition of lyophilic substances in the raw materials of Crataegus rivularis Nutt.

Study Design: experimental laboratory studies of dry plant materials.

Place and Duration of Study: Bashkir State Medical University, Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Volga Research Medical University and Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences from August 2021 to May 2022.

Methodology: Using gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector, lipophilic fractions of the fruits, shoots, flowers, leaves and fruits of riverine hawthorn, harvested in 2021 in the South Ural Botanical Garden-Institute, were studied.

Results: In general, the shoots and leaves of Crataegus rivularis accumulate compounds of the class of steroids, phytosterols, terpenoids, saponins and phenolic compounds, which suggests that the raw material may have additional pharmacological properties, such as hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant.

Conclusion: The results obtained show the good prospects for further studies of the composition of hawthorn extracts to expand the possibilities of phytotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on the Clinical Periodontal Inflammatory Parameters in \(\beta\)-Thalassemia Major (TM-\(\beta\)) Patients with Gingivitis

Ayesha Hanif, Saima Quraeshi, Asim Qidwai, Moazzam Ali Shahid, Soban Qadir Khan, Komal Khan, Javairia Waqasi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36291

Background: Increased prevalence of gingival diseases in thalassemia patients has been consistently reported. In diseases with neutrophil dysfunctions, periodontal tissue is lost very rapidly. \(\beta\)-thalassemia major (TM- \(\beta\)) patients exhibit defective neutrophils and macrophages. Therefore, supplementary gingival inflammation is detrimental to periodontal tissues in these patients. This warrants attention to specialized oral health care intervention in these patients. This is the pioneer pre and post study that evaluates the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in \(\beta\)-thalassemia major (TM- \(\beta\)) patients with gingivitis. And also reports the prevalence and distribution of disease severity in TM- \(\beta\)patients.

Methods: 31 patients (15 females, 16 males) fulfilling the inclusion criteria were provided with protocol guided NSPT including scaling, polishing and chemical mouthrinse (0.2% CHX). Gingival index (GI), plaque score, Papillary bleeding index (PI) and periodontal pocket depth (PPD) were recorded with a periodontal probe (UNC-15) at baseline and evaluated after 6 weeks of intervention. Paired T-test was applied for GI, PBI and plaque and Wilcoxon signed rank test for PPD at the P-value of <0.05

Results: 86% of the assessed individuals had gingivitis (6% -mild, 44%- moderate and 36% - severe). NSPT showed highly significant (P - <0.000) improvement from baseline to 6 weeks after intervention for all the clinical parameters, GI, PBI, plaque score and PPD.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the results show that with proper protocol, multidisciplinary approach and careful screening of the patient’s systemic status, TM-\(\beta\)patients with gingivitis respond positively to local measures of plaque control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of ESBL in Klebsiella Sp. and Its Antibiotic Resistance Pattern from Various Clinical Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Snehal Mayanand Deshmukhe, G. S. Karande, Shanu Braj Kishor Sharma, S. R. Patil, R. V. Shinde, S. K. Pawar, H. V. Patil, P. M. Mane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36292

Background: Klebsiella infection presents a global medical challenge because it is an important opportunistic GNB in health care institutions. The isolation and identification of resistance pattern of Klebsiella infections helps in selection of appropriate antibiotics, reducing the morbidity and mortality of patients and reducing the spread of resistant strains in the community

Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of ESBL in Klebsiella species and its antibiotic resistance pattern from various clinical samples.

Method: Specimens like urine, blood, sputum, pus, wound swab, tracheal aspirates

Microbes from urine, blood, sputum, pus, wound swab, and tracheal aspirates after preparation and cultivation, and isolation were identified by Gram’s staining and various biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done including third generation cephalosporins and the resistant were done by Double disc synergy test (DDST) and Combined disc diffusion test (CDDT).

Result: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. aerogenes (48%) was the most common species isolated followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (46%), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp pneumoniae (6%). Among 100 isolates of Klebsiella spp., 53(53%) isolates were ESBL producers. Of the 53(53%) ESBL isolates, 46(46%) isolates showed ESBL production by double disk synergy test and 51(51%) by combined disk diffusion test.

Conclusion: Most of Klebsiella ESBL positive isolates were observed in pus sample. Combined disc diffusion test demonstrated more effectivity than double disc diffusion test. So, CDDT being simple and cheaper method should be included in the microbiology laboratories as a routine test for early deduction of ESBL producing organisms in specimen from critically ill patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Gastroparesis Symptoms among T2DM Patients in Tabuk City

Bashayer Dhaifallah Alanazi, Manea Alhablani, Almaha Alanazi, Maram Mohsen Al Balawi, Amani Salem Alamrani, Nujud Abdulqader Albalawi, Shahad Ali Rfadh, Asmaa Musallam Alfuhaymani, Faris Abdullah Al Hashem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36293

Background: Development and progression of gastrointestinal complications in T2DM patients are one of the main contributors in the clinical course of the disease. Therefore, early recognition of gastroparesis is an important issue, despite this is not an easy task.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of gastroparesis symptoms among T2DM patients.

Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tabuk city, Saudi Arabia among all patients diagnosed with T2DM patients and attended the chronic illness clinics of King Khalid Armed Forces hospital throughout the period April-May, 2022. An interview questionnaire was utilized including 5 main parts: Demographic data of patients, medical history, weight and height measurements, the most recent hemoglobin A1c, and the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptoms Index (GCSI) to estimate the prevalence of gastroparesis.

Results: The study included 348 T2DM patients. More than half of them (57.8%) were females. Their age ranged between 23 and 75 years with an arithmetic mean±standard deviation of 54±11.3 years. The commonest reported gastroparesis symptoms were stomach fullness (45.1%), nausea (42%), loss of appetite (42%)and feeling excessively full after meals (41.1%). Overall, the prevalence of gastroparesis symptoms among T2DM patients was 11.8%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that females were at high significant risk for developing gastroparesis symptoms compared to males (Adjusted odds ratio “AOR”==2.49, 95% confidence interval “CI”: 1.18-5.27), p=0.016. Participants` glycated hemoglobin level was not significantly associated with gastroparesis symptoms after controlling for confounder effect.

Conclusion: The prevalence of gastroparesis symptoms among T2DM patients was not high. Symptoms were more likely to affect female than male patients. However, they were not independently associated with glycemic control or treatment with metformin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Position of Glenoid Fossa in Skeletal Class I and Class II Malocclusion

Maryam Mushtaq, Amjad Mehmood, Abdul Jabbar, Anam Akram, Masooma Hameed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36294

Aim: To evaluate the mean position of the glenoid fossa in patients with skeletal class I and skeletal class II malocclusions in a specialist care hospital.

Method of Research: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Location and Peroid of Study: Out Patients Department of Orthodontics, Margalla Institute of Health Sciences Rawalpindi from 1-12-2013 to 30-05-2014.

Methodology: Clinical records of patients, who had approached or had been referred to orthodontics department, were maintained as per Orthodontics protocol including clinical history, physical examination and radiographs inclusive of Lateral Cephalogram. Radiographs were taken with the informed consent of patient or parents as per the requirement in horizontal plane parallel to floor, lower jaw in maximal intercuspation with lips at rest. Patients were segregated into 2 groups of skeletal class I and class II relationships. On Cephalogram, SNA, SNB, ANB, GF-S on FHP and GF-FMN were measured.

The details were assessed on statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 14). Descriptive statistics were utilized to calculate the frequency and percentages for qualitative variables like gender. Means and standard deviation were analyzed for quantitative variables like SNA, SNB, ANB, GF-S on FHP, and GF-FMN for skeletal class I and class II groups. Independent sample t-test was employed to juxtapose the means and SD for GF-S on FHP and GF-FMN in millimeters for both the groups.

Results: On conduct of various descriptive statistics / sample tests, results were achieved. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Measurement of mean location of glenoid fossa in skeletal class I and skeletal class II groups was end result of the study which was compared subsequently in both groups. Mean GF-S on FH in skeletal class I was 17.47\(\pm\)3.45 mm and in skeletal class II it was 17.01\(\pm\)3.79 mm, which was statistically non consequential (p = 0.528). Similarly Mean GF-FMN in skeletal class I was 80.50\(\pm\)6.17 mm and in skeletal class II it came out to be 77.72\(\pm\)7.69 mm, which was statistically substantial (p=0.048).

Conclusion: It is inferred from results that difference between glenoid fossa position and FMN point in skeletal class I and Class II malocclusions is statistically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vibratory Inhibition and Pelvic Stabilization Exercise on Tone, Balance and Gross Motor Function in Spastic Cerebral Palsy- A Comparative Study

Nehal Gupta, Saurabh Kumar, Aarti Gupta, Priyanka Rishi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36295

Objectives: Cerebral palsy is one of the leading causes of movement and posture disorders. Recently, Vibration therapy as a treatment method in clinical practice has been used as a complementary approach. This study compared the effects of Segmental Muscle Vibration and Pelvic Stabilization Exercises on Muscle Tone, Balance, and Gross Motor Function in spastic CP children.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, of both sexes (age range of 4-6 years) were included in the study. The Children were assigned into two groups.  Group A received Segmental Muscle Vibration along with conventional treatment i.e. Passive Stretching Exercise and Group B received Pelvic Stabilization Exercise along with conventional treatment for 40 minute, 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Outcome measures include Modified Ashworth Scale, Pediatric Balance Scale and Gross Motor Function Measure-88 for measuring Tone (spasticity), Balance and Gross Motor Function.

Results: A significant improvement in all variables (p < 0.05) was observed in each group, with greater improvement in tone, balance and gross function indices in group A.

Conclusion: From the results we concluded that both the Segmental Vibration Inhibition Therapy and Pelvic Stabilization exercise yielded a clinically significant improvement in spastic CP; but Segmental Vibration Inhibition Therapy shows more improvement in reduction in tone, improvement in balance and gross motor function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity and In silico ADME Prediction of Synthesised 8-hydroxyquinoline Azo Compounds against Some ESKAPE Human Pathogens and Mycobacterium smegmatis

Cedric D. K. Amengor, Patrick Gyan, Cynthia Amaning Danquah, Paul Peprah, Benjamin K. Harley, Emmanuel Orman, Inemisit O. Ben, Michael Tetteh, Emmanuel B. A. Adusei, Francis K. Kekessie, Nathaniel N. A. Okine

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i42A36296

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has increasingly been a global health concern over the past decades and that has necessitated the quest to increase the pool of antibiotics.

Methods: Five (5) azo compounds were synthesised by diazotization and coupling procedures with yields of 60 – 92%. They were characterized by melting point determination, Ultra-Violet Visible, and Infra-red spectroscopy. High-throughput spot culture growth inhibition (HT-SPOTi) antimicrobial assay was used to evaluate the compounds. Computational studies was also employed to predict some pharmacokinetic properties of the azo compounds

Results: From the in silico studies, none of the compounds violated Lipinski’s rule and therefore, have the potential to be developed into an oral drug. They also showed Total Polar Surface Area (TPSA) values < 140 A2 (74.91 – 100.98 A2) and percentage absorption of 74 – 83 %. They were placed in category III of acute oral drugs. From the high-throughput spot culture growth inhibition antimicrobial assay, all the compounds possessed inhibitory activity against the ESKAPE human pathogens and Mycobacterium smegmatis, with MICs range of 3.9 \(\geq\) 500 \(\mu g/mL\). Except for 4e which showed liver toxicity, all the compounds demonstrated mutagenic and hepatotoxic tendencies. The modulatory assay of the azo compounds revealed that 4c and 4e modulated the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. 4c and 4e also modulated the antimicrobial activity of rifampicin against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Exploiting the ability of 4c and 4e to act by a mode of action revealed that they have biofilm formation inhibitory potential.

Conclusion: Compounds 4c and 4e exhibited the best antimicrobial activity in terms of resistant modulation and biofilm inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis.