Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Meta-analysis of the Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Pain in Fibromyalgia

Ruoa Faisal Albunayyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36267

Background: Fibromyalgia is a clinical condition that causes wide spread severe pain, sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. Patients with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than others.

Aim: This study aims to screen and evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the management of pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis gathered all studies related to selective serotonin inhibitors in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia, using the databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. All articles using a visual analog scale (VAS) were included in the review. All duplicates and non-eligible or unavailable full-text studies were excluded. The primary outcome was defined as pain reduction by VAS score. Secondary outcomes were the assessment of the occurrence of adverse effects at any time in the study or premature withdrawal.

Results: The five studies included in the meta-analysis for pain management have moderate heterogeneity. This is shown by the test of heterogeneity with a p-value greater than 0.05 and I2 value less than 50%. If the I2 value is more than 50% and the p-value is significant, this results in differing study results. The result of this meta-analysis shows that the SSRI group had a statistically significant reduction in pain (Z = 2.37, p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Based on the results of the meta-analysis, SSRIs may be considered for pain management for a short-term duration, preferably in female patients aged over 45 years old, in the absence of other health problems except for fibromyalgia. However, close monitoring of the potential withdrawal effects is necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emotional and Therapeutic Elements of Cigarette Smoking Control: A Cross Sectional Study

Usman Latif, Syeda Arooj Fatima, Hassan Daniyal, Fatima Maham Iqtidar, Chaudhary Muhammad Salman, Muhammad Yasir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36259

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of services rendered by health professionals in reducing cigarette smoking at the smoking cessation centers.

Methods: Through May 2020 and April 2021, data from hospitals connected with the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, have been collected. During the same time period, information from DHQ and Allied Hospitals Faisalabad were evaluated using a recent retrospective review. Statistical software was used to calculate the incidence and average values. Chi-square also student t tests remained utilized to evaluate associated variables; p 0.06 remained measured statistically.

Results: The average age of entrance was 39.73 13.21 years (min 14; max 92). Women  were older than males at time of admission, although men began smoking earlier. Individuals  with fewer than a high school diploma began smoking at a younger age. Once cured  through medication also behavioral treatment, the smoking cessation rate remained 38.4 percent (n = 218).

Conclusion: Approximately 49 percent of smokers stopped smoking after receiving medication and behavioral counseling. The majority of smokers was between ages of 31 and 51. More smoking cessation clinics should be built to provide smoking cessation tools to more informed individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Hematological Parameters with Nottingham Histologic Grades of Breast Carcinoma in South Indian Population

U. Sunderesh Kamal Chander, M. Vanishree, Sonti Sulochana, Marlina Rowland

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 5-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36260

Aim: To determine the most reliable hematological markers for the prognosis of breast cancer. To evaluate the correlation between hematological parameters and histopathological grading.

Study Design: A retrospective study

Place of Study: This study was carried out in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: Study was started after obtaining the approval from the ethics committee. Histopathological grades 1, 2 and 3 of breast cancer patients were correlated with their hematological parameters.

Results: Out of 104 cases of breast carcinoma, maximum of cases were seen in histopathological grade 2, followed by grade 3 and grade 1 respectively. On correlation with hematological parameters, Hb concentration, RBC count, PCV , MCV , TLC , DLC(neutrophil, lymphocytes) and Absolute lymphocyte count was decreased as the grade increase. RDW increased with higher the grade. Neutrophil lymphocytes ratio showed statistically increased increase in histopathological grade 3 when compared to grade 1.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the hematological parameters like hemoglobin, RBC count, PCV, WBC count, platelet count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, NLR in breast cancer can be a useful guide for disease progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography versus Rendered Panoramic Images in Determination of Dens Invaginatus Characteristics: Retrospective Cohort Study

Leena Mekhled Al-Mutairi, Asma Munir Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36263

Background: "Dens in Dente" is another name for Dens invaginatus. It's an uncommon developmental aberration that comes in a range of shapes and sizes. Invagination begins in the crown and may go to the root. The goal of this study was to use CBCT and panoramic pictures created from CBCT scans to evaluate the existence, kind, and features of DI in full-mouth surveys in Saudi patients presenting to Qassim dental college, and to compare the findings of the imaging modalities.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed by using 302 previously obtained CBCT records of patients from the database of the oral and maxillofacial radiology department of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia from yer 2016 to 2021. The research was ethically approved by the ethical approval committee of Qassim university (Code #: F-2019-3005).

Results: In the present study, the age of the patients ranged from 9 to 80 years (mean age was 44 years). Out of 302 scans, 153 patients were female, and 149 were found to be male. According to the Cohen kappa test, the inter-examiner agreement was high between the 2 assessments of the observers: k = 0.795, P < .000 for CBCT and k = 0.915, P < .000 for panoramic images rendered from CBCT images. On the basis of the CBCT images, DI was observed in 98 of the 302 patients (frequency, 32.5%). Type I DI was the most commonly observed type of invaginatus (93.9%), followed by type II (6.1%). However, type III was not being observed.

Conclusion: We can deduce that there is no special relationship between gender and the presence of dens invagnatus. When it comes to diagnosing and classifying dens invaginatus, CBCT images outperform rendered panoramic images. Because it provides an accurate representation of the external and internal dental anatomy, as well as appropriate visualization of associated characteristics with such cases that would be absolutely necessary in their treatment phases, CBCT can be recommended as an effective diagnostic device for identifying DI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Poor Quality Sleep during Ramadan and Academic Performance among Students in Saudi Arabia

Ibrahim M. Dighriri, Abdulmajeed A. Madkhali, Khawlah K. Alrabghi, Naif Almofrh, Khalid A. Alqurashi, Nouf S. Aljuaid, Ghadeer B. Alqurashi, Marwah Kh. Almalki, Shatha A Alnami, Yahya A. Mahzari, Zamzam O. Mashraqi, Aishah H. Albuheiri, Salih H. Alqurashi, Mona Y. Alhazmy, Fatimah H. Albeladi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36264

Adequate sleep is essential for improving cognitive function, memory retention, and academic performance. During Ramadan, many students suffer with the changes in mealtimes that lead to variations in caloric and nutrient intake and affect sleep quality. Disturbed and poor sleep results in decreased academic performance and impaired judgment. This study aim was to assess the relationship between poor quality sleep during Ramadan and academic performance among students in Saudi Arabia. It also provided suggested strategies to improve students’ sleep quality and academic performance. It was a cross-sectional study, which was conducted by using an online questionnaire from April to May 2022. The questionnaire consisted of two components. The first portion contained demographic data, such as gender, age, and academic performance. The second section was devoted to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Study participants were students of both genders aged 18 and older. The survey was completed by 583 students, of whom 364 (62.4%) were female and only 219 (37.6%) were male. Almost all the participants were aged between 21–23 years. Four hundred and eight (70.0%) were single. The results of the PSQI overall score were that 460 students (78.9%) had poor sleep quality, whereas 123 (21.1%) had good sleep quality. Most of the students with poor academic performance had very bad sleep quality (45%), sleep latency of more than one hour (41.4%), sleep duration < 5 hours (43.2%), and sleep efficiency of <65% (52.3%). The majority of these students had sleep disturbances three or more times a week (43.2%), and they suffered dysfunction every day (43.2%). The results revealed an association between all the PSQI components and academic performance (p < 0.05) except sleep duration. The majority of students had poor sleep quality in Ramadan. We would recommend that students be made aware of the impact of poor sleep habits on academic performance, that students are taught skills, such as how to manage their time well and how to get a good night's sleep, and suggest that universities change the time that students study during Ramadan to fit their abilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spread of Mesalazine Rectal Foam after Single Dose in Mild Ulcer Patients

K. Rakesh, K. Kumaresan, S. Prameelarani, M. Salman, S. Kamireddy, S. V. S. Attili, Rakesh Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36265

Background: The rectal foam enemas were used for ulcerative colitis of distal regions due to its desired efficacy and less side effects. The spread and persistence of the drug plays a key role in the treatment. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to study the spread and persistence of Salofalk (Mesalazine foam Enema), manufactured by Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH (mesalazine) rectal foam in mild ulcerative colitis patients.

Methods: This is an open label, uncontrolled prospective study in ulcerative colitis patients. The patients received 2 g of mesalazine rectal foam (labelled with Tcm99) in two actuations (30 mL). The spread of the radiolabeled formulation was assessed over a period of 4 h by gamma scintigraphy.

Results: The formulation was retained by the patients till 4 h imaging period. The foam spread in rectum, sigmoid colon and descending colon. The percentage radioactive dose exposed is more in sigmoid colon compared to rectum and descending colon in 4 h imaging period. The spread of the foam extended till descending colon for two out of 4 patients.

Conclusion: The study results are consistent with the previous studies, and it supports the label indication. The obtained data of the present study provides in vivo evidence of the spread of formulation in the desired site of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pregnancy (Maternal and Fetal) Outcome in Women Who Used Smokeless Tobacco: A Cross-sectional Study

Shehreen Memon, Sanam Channa, Nadia Hameed, Yasmeen Bibi, Muhammad Nadeem Chohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36266

Aim: To assess the pregnancy (maternal and fetal) outcome in pregnant women who used smokeless tobacco in tertiary care hospital.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LUMHS, Jamshoro/Hyderabad from August 2016 to February 2017.

Methodology: Total 169 pregnant women who used smokeless tobacco (gutka, paan, naswar, mainpuri) were included. General examination was performed. Laboratory investigations were ordered for complete blood counts. Ultrasonography was performed for gestational age and fetal weight. We calculated descriptive statistics. The stratification was completed. After stratification, the Chi-square test was used.

Results: Mean gestational age was 29.15±8.80 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1.96±0.81Kg. Among smokeless tobacco, 24.3% used Paan, 18.9% used Gutka, 23.7% used naswar and 47.3% used mainpuri. Mean duration of use of smokeless tobacco was 32.94±17.63 months. 62.1% have low weight birth and 34.3% have still birth. 28.4% had spontaneous abortion, 58% had anemia and 34.9% had premature delivery.

Conclusion: This study concludes that mothers who used smokeless tobacco had a higher rate of abortion, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and delivery of low birth weight newborns.

Open Access Review Article

Endophytic Fungi and Phytochemical Profile of Withania somnifera

Sabrin Afroz Riya, Md. Hossain Sohrab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i40B36261

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is used in medicine from the time of Ayurveda. The roots of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of nervous and some other disorders. Several effects like immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, cardiovascular protection, tolerance and dependence have also been studied. Many Studies show that ashwagandha comprises antioxidant, anxiolytic, adaptogen, memory enhancing, antiparkinsonian, antivenom, anti-inflammatory, antitumor properties. This article is presented to gather all the updated information on its phytochemical profile and its endophytic fugal communities. The review result indicates the herb of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) should be studied more extensively to confirm the earlier studied results and reveal other capable therapeutic effects.