Open Access Study Protocol

Is Tramadol Hydrochloride with Adrenaline an Alternative to Lignocaine Hydrochloride with Adrenaline in Dental Implant Surgery ?? – A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Akshita Parlawar, Bhushan Prakashchand Mundada, Aishwarya Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36185

Background: When used as infiltration anesthesia, tramadol is known to provide a local anesthetic effect. 

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the anesthetic potency of local infiltrations of 5% tramadol hydrochloride with adrenaline and 2% lignocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline in dental implant procedures. To assess tramadol postoperative analgesia's onset, duration, potency, and effectiveness as a local anesthetic agent. 

Methodology: A split mouth study was conducted in the Outpatient Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, of Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi, district Wardha, Maharashtra.  A total number of 80 patients (split-mouth) who needed dental implants was chosen and divided into two groups of 40 people each.  Patients were chosen at random, regardless of their gender, caste, or religion. A written consent was obtained from all the patients. 

Expected Result: The study was carried out to check potency of Tramadol hydrochloride with adrenaline to lignocaine hydrochloride in dental implant surgery, it had similar efficacy and used as an alternative where lignocaine was contraindicated. 

Conclusion: Tramadol hydrochloride with adrenaline was used as an alternative to lignocaine hydrochloride in selected cases, if the study proves.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Effects of Ozone Therapy on the Expression of IL-8, IL-10, CXCL9 and CXCL11 in Joint Fluid in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

Hongxi Chi, Xianjie Wen, Xingqing Liu, Chen Ling, Tuxia Zhang, Ziying Zhou, Hao Wu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36189

Knee joint is one of the common sites of osteoarthritis (OA) with manifestation of localized joint swelling, pain and deformity, often seriously affecting daily work and life. It was found that the activation of Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK / STAT3) signal pathway can lead to osteoarthritis. JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is closely related to painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and participates in neuropathic pain. Ozone therapy is often used for alleviating pain in neck, shoulder, waist and leg due to its oxidative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In recent years, ozone therapy is promising in treating knee osteoarthritis, which can significantly reduce the pain and swelling of the joints. The mechanism of ozone for knee osteoarthritis remains unclear and might associated with inhibition of inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinase activity, and intervention of free radical metabolism. In this study, the efficacy of ozone in the treatment of OA and its effect on inflammatory factors were evaluated by knee joint cavity ozone injection and detecting the expression of inflammatory factors IL-8, IL-10, CXCL9 and CXCL11 in joint fluid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Basic Life Support (BLS) among Schoolteachers in the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

Tawfeeq I. Altherwi, Amjad Mohammed E. Albannaa, Mohammed O. Shami, Fatimah H. Dallak, Hussam M. Suhail, Bushra H. Darraj, Asmaa H. Majrabi, Safa M. Al-Motahar, Abdulaziz Alhazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36186

Background: Basic life support (BLS) is vital for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Previous studies suggested that Saudi schoolteachers' BLS knowledge and training are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of BLS among schoolteachers in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Self-administered, online questionnaires were distributed to 24 randomly selected schools in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Data were presented as frequency, percentage, mean (M), and standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was conducted using an independent sample t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). 

Results: A total of 424 participants completed the study questionnaires, and 246 (58.0%) were male. Participants’ age ranged from 20 to 62 years (M = 41.68, SD = 7.25). A total of 83 (19.6%) teachers had completed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. The overall level of BLS knowledge and skills was inadequate (M = 4.79, SD = 1.30). Knowledge scores were statistically different between males and females [t(1, 422) = 4.45, p=0.001]. Also, BLS knowledge scores differed significantly between teachers who had previous CPR training and teachers who did not [t (1, 422) = 25.48, p = 0.000]. In general, teachers had positive attitudes towards the importance of BLS and were willing to have future BLS training. 

Conclusion: The study showed that schoolteachers had positive attitudes towards BLS but lacked BLS knowledge which would affect their skills.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Immediate Post-operative Gynecologic and Obstetric Complications in a Tertiary Care Center in Karachi

Saira Jamshed, Farah Khan, Nida Shahid, Razia Hussain, Naureen Waleem, Erum Saba, Ahsan Ali Siddiqui

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36187

Objective: Postoperative complications are commonly observed during gynecologic and obstetric surgeries that could be controlled by timely management. The factors that involve in these complications could be related with patient or surgeon as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of immediately reported postoperative complications in gynecologic and obstetric surgeries in a tertiary care center.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hamdard hospital, Karachi. The duration of this study was 1 year from July 2018 – June 2019. A total of 200 adult female patients of 18 to 65 years having elective or emergency surgical procedure were included in the study. Data was analysed by using SPSS version-16. Mean standard deviation was calculated for age and hospitalization stay. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for presence of comorbidities such as obesity, anaemia and diabetes mellitus and postoperative complications.

Results: The study results showed the mean age was reported 32.04±7.79 years and mean hospital stay was observed 3.38±1.08 days. Comorbidities revealed that 26(13.0%) were obese, 89(44.5%) were anemic and 6(3.0%) had diabetes. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting was the most common complication observed in 110(55.0%) women followed by fever that was reported in 69(34.5%) cases. Three patients (1.5%) were found to have Paralytic lleus, 23(11.5%) reported abdominal distention, postoperative gastritis was reported in 15(7.5%) cases, bleeding per vagina observed in 7(3.5%) women. Wound dehiscence was found in 2(1.0%) cases and Wound Infection in 10(5.0%) women.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that post-operative nausea and vomiting were observed in most of the patients followed by fever subsequent to gynecologic and obstetric surgeries. Additionally, the incidence of wound infection and wound dehiscence were observed low.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing and Writing the Thesis: Difficulty Perceived by Pharmacists to Graduate as Hospital Pharmacy Specialist

S. A. N. Uema, M. E. Olivera, E. M. Vega

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36188

Introduction: Hospital Pharmacy Specialization (HPS) is a postgraduate career for pharmacists at the National University of Córdoba and the first in Argentina. It is a six semester’s course organized by units.

Objective: To analyze and compare the difficulties perceived by the pharmacists for obtaining the specialist title, in two different moments of the HPS career.

Methodology: Investigational study of pharmacists’ perception using a nominal group technique in two different moments of the didactic curriculum.

Results: Nineteen hospital pharmacists participated in the first workshop identifying 16 barriers, while 15 professionals in the second meeting perceived 15 difficulties. All of them were HPS students.

Difficulties were grouped in six themes: research/thesis, time, data access, financing, knowledge, and others.

Conclusions: In both moments of the course, pharmacists prioritized the barriers related to the research necessary to develop the thesis. Minor barriers as English knowledge and Informatics were overcome from one year to another.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Evaluation of Sorafenib Tosylate Nanoparticles Including Assessment of IC50 Values using PC Cell Lines

P. B. Sailaja, B. Jeevana Jyothi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36190

Introduction: Sorafenib tosylate is an anticancer drug used for treatment of pancreatic cancer. In the present research work, Sorafenib tosylate is converted to nanoparticles with an aim to assess its anticancer activity with reduced concentration expecting less side effects of the parent drug.

Objective: The aim of the present research work is preparation of nanoparticles of Sorafenib tosylate, evaluation at in-vitro level and to carry out promising nanoparticles for anti cancer activity for treatment of pancreatic cancer by MTT Assay method using PC cell lines including comparison of IC50 values of sorafenib tosylate nanoparticles and pure drug

Methodology: The nanoparticles of sorafenib were prepared by salting out method using Eudragit S-100, sodium CMC and Zinc sulphate. Eight formulations were tried using varied drug to polymer ratios.

Results: The promising formulation produced with drug to polymer ratio of 1:2 has particle size of 231.6nm and highest dissolution rate 76.2± 0.35% in 60 min and 82.5% in 90 min. These nanoparticles assessed by MTT assay method revealed reasonably reduced IC50 value of 0.848±0.217 compared to 1.92±0.14 in case of pure sorafenib tosylate.

Conclusion: Sorafenib tosylate nanoparticles can be produced successfully by salting out method using drug to polymer (Sorafenib tosylate: Eudragit L-100) ratio of 1:3 by salting out method to possess ideal drug release characteristics. IC50 values of nanoparticles of sorafenib tosylate are reasonably reduced compared to pure drugs indicating very chances of reduced side effects with nanoparticles to treat pancreatic cancer effectively with reduced side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Implication of Wbc and Platelet Count among Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Waghodia Region, Vadodara, Gujarat

Charmi C. Thakkar, Inampudi Sailaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36191

Introduction: Hematological parameters are very useful profiles in the effective management of the disease However, there is scarcity of studies on the hematological parameters of SCD in Gujarat.

Objective: The objective of the study was to changes in hematological finding in patients of sickle cell disease.

Materials and Methods: This Prospective studyincludes total 150 participants who suffering from sickle cell anemia and attending at our Institute Complete blood count (CBC) and sickling test was done from all participants Comparison of results was done between Sickle cell trait and Sickle cell disease Group.

Results: The mean age of the SCA patients was 25 54±10 years. Maximum participants are found to be from age group 25-30 yr(n=35) followed by 20-25 yr(n=30) of the 150 SCA patients, 89 (59 33%), and 61 (40 6%) were males and females, respectively. The Mean value of WBC count(/cumm) in SCT group is10611±3015 and SCD is 14427±3693 while the Mean value of Platelet count (lacs/cumm) is 3.75±1 i10 and 4 04±0 94 SCT and SCD Group.

Conclusions: The present study found elevated levels of WBC and PLT among the SCD patients, possibly reflecting spleen effect in these patientsi These hematological parameters present a more descriptive data on SCD patients in Gujarat and may as well provide a useful tool and assist clinicians in the management of SCD patients in india.

Open Access Original Research Article

Uterine Fibroids “Spectrum of Presentation and Its Impact on Women’s Health

Yasmeen Koohara, Madhu Bala, Misbah Mehmood, . Bushra, Bushra Asif, Bushra Tasneem, Alina Mirza

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i36B36192

Objective: Uterine fibroids are the most frequently observed benign tumor that develops in female reproductive system, most commonly found in women of 50 years of age. Menorrhagia is the most common clinical manifestation of uterine fibroids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the clinical presentation, early detection with the best treatment modalities in women with uterine fibroids.

Methodology: This was a prospective hospital based observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mirpurkhas after taking ethical approval from institution review board. The duration of the study was about 9 months from July 2019 to March 2020. A total of 100 women in their reproductive age (20-50 years) who ever experienced menstrual abnormalities, complained of abdomino-pelvic mass, pain, urinary and bowl symptoms, anemia and infertility were included in the study. Categorical variables such as parity, age, anemic status, associated symptoms, diagnostic method, and treatment modalities were analyzed as frequencies and percentages.

Results: The study results showed that out of 100 patients, 19 (19.0%) patients were between 20-30 years of age, 23 (23.0%) between 31-40 years and 58 (58.0%) falls between 41-45 years of age, 67(67.0%) women had >3 children. Symptoms associated with uterine fibroids included 74(74.0%) were anemic. Dysmenorrhea was seen in 50(50.0%) patients, menorrhagia in 50(50.0%) patients. Palpable fibroid mass was felt in 35(35.0%) patients while 78(78.0%) cases reported fibroid masses on ultrasonography. Treatment of uterine fibroid included total abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 65 (65.0%) patients, myomectomy was carried out in 21 (21.0%).

Conclusion: This study concluded that multiparous patients were reported to have uterine fibroids more frequently as compared to nulliparous particularly in the age of 41-50 years old. The most common clinical manifestation was menorrhagia with anemia, persistent pain and pressure symptoms that have a negative impact on women’s social, sexual, and work life.