Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practices of Oral Health Status among Pregnant Women Attending Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro

Ifat Balouch, Erum Jahan, Rehmatullah Kandhro, Zubeda Bhutto, Batool Bibi, Reema Akhtiar, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36158

Background: Pregnant women's oral health behaviors and attitudes are infrequently studied in low-income countries, but they should be taken into account when developing preventive or therapeutic research to lessen the load of oral illnesses.

Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of oral health in pregnant women attending Oral diagnosis outpatient department OPD of Liaquat university hospital Jamshoro.

Subject and Methods: A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Data was collected by providing questionnaire to pregnant women who attended OPD for their antenatal check up. Socidemographic findings, questions related to participant’s knowledge regarding oral health and practices adopted were recorded.

Results: Most of the patients, 49.3% were in age range of 26 to 35 years with the majority of them being housewives. A total of 48% were illiterate followed by 24.6% who had only just primary education. Around 51.3% have the good habit of brushing twice a day. Only 37.3% had knowledge about nutritional implications in pregnancy, and 34% visit dentist once in six months.

Conclusion: The majority of patients has little or average knowledge regarding oral health in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation Mechanism of Proanthocyanidins from Leaves of Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. Et Zucc.) on Hyperlipemic Rats Induced by High-fat-diet

Lu-ting Ye, Zong-hua Dong, Jun Liu, Feng Guan, Jian Ge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36159

Aim: To investigate the lipid-lowering effect of proanthocyanidins from Bayberry leaf (BLP) in rat model of hyperlipidemia and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism.

Study Design: The study includes in-vitro and in-vivo experiments in rat model.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Zhejiang Province, China, between March 2021 to December 2021.

Methodology: BLP were preliminarily characterized. The adsorption rate of BLP was determined based on in-vitro binding to bile acids. The effect of BLP on membrane transport of bile acids was examined through Caco-2 mono-layer in trans-well. The effect of BLP on serum enzyme activity and lipid metabolism genes expression were also investigated in a high-fat diet rat model.

Results: Total poly-phenol and proanthocyanidins contents were 97.93% and 82.25% respectively, using gallic acid and Epigallocatechin-3-O-Gallate (EGCG) as equivalent. The total flavonoid content was 12.05% (quercetin as equivalent) and the average polymerization degree of BLP was determined as 4.51. And the in-vitro average binding rates of BLP to bile acids were all higher than 80%. Meanwhile, the membrane transport of bile acids in Caco-2 monolayer cells were significantly obstructed by BLP. Furthermore, the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in rat serum were markedly decreased after 28-day of BLP treatment. And the hepatic steatosis was significantly ameliorated in high-dose BLP treatment group compared with high fat group. High-dose administration of BLP significantly reduced the levels of 3-hydroxy-3-3methylglutary-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, while the levels of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCG-5), liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) were significantly increased.

Conclusion: BLP can mediate the serum lipid metabolism via preventing bile acids re-absorption, reducing oxidative stress and regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Dermoscopic Patterns in Common Pigmented Skin Lesions

Sabira Baz Khan, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed, Shazia Bano, Erum Ellahi, Hira Mughal, Hira Shafqaut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36162

Objective:  To determine the dermoscopic patterns in common pigmented skin lesions.

Setting and duration Study: This study was conducted at Dermatology Department, Civil Hospital, Hyderabad, during October 18, 2020 to April 17, 2021.

Materials and Methods: After taking approval from hospital ethical committee and written informed consent from 150 patients, all patients with pigmented skin lesions were enrolled. Demographic information were also recorded. Detailed history and thorough dermatological, physical and systemic examination was conducted. Routine investigations and histopathology was taken wherever necessary to aid the clinical diagnosis. Dermoscopic and clinical photographs were taken after informed consent. All dermoscopic findings were studied using handheld pocket dermoscope. In the case of patient having multiple lesions, only a single active lesion was selected for dermoscopy.

Results: Age range in this study was from 15 to 60 years with median (IQR) age was17 (15 -60) years and mean duration of disease was 5.67+ 2.14 months. Among the common pigmented skin lesions, 86 (57.4%) had sharp demarcation, 29 (19.3%) had Dots and gobules, 7 (4.5%) had Pseudonetwork, 12 (8%) had Homogenous structure less pigmentation, 78 (52%) had Milia-like cysts and 21 (14%) had Cerebriform pattern.

Conclusion: This study shows the high frequency of dermoscopic patterns in common pigmented skin lesions. This concludes that derrmoscopy is a useful and essential technique to clinically manage pigmented skin lesions, and it plays a fundamental role in early identification of pigmented lesions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Houttuynia cordata Extract on Gastric Cancer Cells via Induction of Apoptosis

Thanh Quang Nguyen, Hoang Nhat Minh Nguyen, Van Minh Le, Dai-Hung Ngo, Thanh Sang Vo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36163

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an edible and medicinal plant that belongs to the family of Saururaceae and widely distributes in Eastern Asia countries. H. cordata have been reported as a promising anticancer agent against various cancer cells. This study was to determine anti-proliferative effect of H. cordata extract on gastric cancer cells using an in vitro experimental model. The cytotoxicity was examined via the 2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while cell migration was conducted by wound healing assay. The gene expression level was measured by real time PCR. The result showed that butanol extract exhibited highest anti-proliferative activity against BGC-823 cells with IC50 value of 193 µg/ml. Moreover, the wound healing assay determined the suppressive capacity of butanol extract on cell migration at concentration of 50 µg/ml. Notably, butanol extract treatment (50 µg/ml) was able to up-regulate the mRNA expression of apoptosis-mediated signaling molecules, including caspase-8, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in gastric cancer cells. These results indicate that butanol extract of H. cordata possesses inhibitory activity on tumor development and metastasis via induction of the process of programmed cell death.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of and Safety of Secukinumab in Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Prospective Study

Syeda Shahmoona Tirmizi, Tayyaba Iqbal, Saher Ather, Nadia Farooq, Maria Mansoor, Marium Asar, Naseema Kapadia, Qurrat Ul Ain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36164

Objective: Psoriasis is an immune mediated inflammatory skin disorder that potentially requires lifelong management. Different therapies treating psoriasis have been recognized wherein Secukinumab is a fully humanized, IL-17A monoclonal antibody that has been approved by US Food and Drug administration for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Therefore, this study targeted to assess the efficacy of Secukinumab in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

Methodology: This was a Prospective interventional multicenter study conducted by using consecutive sampling technique. The duration of study was about one year. The sample size was 138. Adult patients between 18-65 years of either gender with clinical diagnosis of psoriasis vulgaris involving scalp, face, hands, or genital areas, were include. Treatment initiated by the administration of a single dose of 300 mg Secukinumab subcutaneously for 4 weeks then monthly for 52 weeks. Paired t-test was applied to assess the difference in the PASI score at various follow ups.

Results: The study results showed that out of 138 patients, 112(81.2%) were males and 26(18.8%) were females and their mean age was 40.47±9.55 years. As far as distribution of disease is concerned, 117(84.8%) patients reported Plaque Psoriasis, 57(41.3%) patients reported Scalp Psoriasis, 9(6.5%) patients reported nail Psoriasis, 11(8.0%) patients reported Palmoplantar Psoriasis, and 5(3.6%) patients reported Erythrodermic psoriasis. For the comparison of Secukinumab treatment under PASI scores, there was statistically significant reduction observed from mean of baseline PASI scores till 1 week (p<0.001), till 2 week (p<0.001), till 4 week (p<0.001), till 8 week (p<0.001). The improvement in mean PASI score from baseline to 1 year was 91%.

Conclusion: This study concluded that Secukinumab is a highly effective, rapid-acting biological therapy with no obvious adverse effects. Additionally, it was seen that secukinumab significantly reduced the baseline PASI score till 8 week rapidly in moderate and severe psoriasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Abnormalities of Lipid Profile in Patients with Cholelithiasis

Sadaf Jabeen, Ihsanullah Sial, Sabohi Shakeel, Khurram Shaikh, Rekha Melwani, Ghulam Sarwar, Syed Samir Anis, Kashmala M. Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 82-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36165

Objective: Cholelithiasis is a chronic recurrent illness that affects the hepatobiliary system. Gall stone formation is caused by the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bile acids and bilirubin. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid parameters of gallstone patients with the control group.

Methodology: This was a Case control study conducted in surgical department of Sindh Government Hospital Korangi 5 by using convenient sampling technique. The duration of the study was about 06 months. A total of 54 patients aged above 15 years of both the genders wherein 28 patients diagnosed with Gallstone disease were considered as case group and 29 patients with no history of gallstones as controls were included in the study. Demographic characteristics such as age, gender and Continuous variables such as lipid parameters (HDL-C, VDL-C, VLDL-C, TGs, TC) were documented as frequencies and percentages. Student’s t-test was used to compare the data between the cases and the control groups.

Results: The study results showed that out of 54 patients, 44(81.5%) were female and 10(18.5%) were male. Lipid profile of the cases and controls revealed that serum VDL-C was significantly higher (p=0.014) in control group 17(31.5%) as compared to cases 8(14.8%). most of the patients of case group 26(48.1%) had serum HDL-C levels between 35-45 mg/dl as compared to the controls 8(14.8%) with a statistically significant difference between them (p=0.001). Moreover, higher serum TGs levels > 200 mg/dl observed in 1(1.9%) patients in case group and 7 (13.0%) in controls with statistically significant difference between them (p=0.006)

Conclusion: This study concluded that the significant association observed between gallstones and abnormal lipid levels among controls and cases. Therefore, it was depicted that the risk of cholelithiasis increased with discrepancies in lipid profiles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Tools Used for Characterization and Development of Minitablets: A Verapamil Hydrochloride Case Study

Bimireddy Bhavani Prasanna Kumar, Rama Rao Nadendla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36160

Various analytical techniques were used at different stages of formulation development to assess the interactions and quality throughout the lifecycle of the verapamil hydrochloride minitablets (VHMT). At initial stage of development studies, pre-formulation analytical techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) used to evaluate the interactions between the drug substance with different inactive ingredients and physicochemical properties of drug substance, which provided the groundwork for the development of robust formulation. A part of physicochemical properties, the solubility data of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) exhibited that pH dependent solubility throughout the physiological buffer media from pH 1.2 – 6.8, as pH of media increase solubility decrease due to the weak basic nature of VH. To improve the solubility of VH, fumaric acid was included in the formulation. The analytical data of FTIR and DSC showed that no chemical interaction with selected excipients. The formulation analytical quantitative techniques like a stability indicating HPLC assay procedure has been developed and validated for VHMT life cycle (initial and stability samples). The analytical data of stability samples of VHMT showed stable upto 3M at 40°C. The pre-formulation data at initial development stage and the stability data of final product evidences that the final drug product was developed with desired release characteristics without any instability issues. In conclusion, the combined use of pre-formulation and formulation analytical techniques helped to identify the defects at early stage of development and overcome those shortcomings by appropriate scientific approach, which significantly minimized the formulation failure at later stage.

Open Access Review Article

Contemporary Technologies in Chronopharmaceutic Drug Delivery System

Apollo James, Mohanraj Palanisamy, Arun Radhakrishnan, Jasmina Khanam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i35A36161

Traditional drug delivery methods aimed for a consistent or sustained medication output to maximize treatment efficacy while minimizing side effects. These dosage forms release medications in a controlled or varied manner. Illnesses are treated by administering drugs to patients in a variety of traditional dose patterns. All these dosage patterns should always be administered monotonously for retaining the drug concentration in a therapeutically effective spectrum. Chronotherapeutics, a type of drug delivery system, has become increasingly important in the treatment of chronic diseases in recent years. Today's environment necessitates chronopharmaceutical formulations that increase patient compliance, optimize medicine distribution at the target site, and minimize side effects to reduce mortality rates. A mechanism in which a medicament has been distributed rapidly after a specified lag interval or time gap in compliance with the circadian rhythm of sickness conditions is known as pulsative drug release. Pulsatile medication delivery is becoming more prevalent these days. The main benefit of this method of the medication delivery system is that the substance is only aired when it is required. Because of this, the risk of developing drug resistance, which is common in both preparations for both conventional and sustained release, is minimized. In addition, certain anticancer medications are quite hazardous. In both traditional and sustained release therapy, these medicines cause serious complications. There are now a plethora of FDA-approved chronotherapeutic medications on the market. This treatment is most useful when a long-term effect is just not necessary and medications are harmful. The most important aspect of this formulation's development is determining the circadian rhythm or an appropriate criterion that would set off the drug's release.