Open Access Systematic Review Article

Carnitine and its Derivatives as a Potential Option for Cardiovascular, Neurologic and Metabolic Complications of COVID-19

Sara Nafisi, Bentelhoda Afsharirad, Hossein Khalili, Shima Hatamkhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36125

As a multisystem disease, COVID-19 and its treatment demonstrate a wide variety of complications. Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid derivative that plays an essential role in the metabolism of fatty acids and alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated the possible role of carnitine and its derivatives in COVID-19-induced fatigue, cardiovascular, neurological, and reproductive system complications. A thorough literature search was performed using the keywords and their synonym words including COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, Carnitine, and L-Carnitine. Non-English literature and conference abstracts were not included. Animal experiments were excluded unless supporting the basic evidence for carnitine efficacy. Oxidative stress and Inflammatory factors are vital in cellular injury pathways caused by COVID-19. Carnitine and SARS-Cov-2 followed common cytokine and stress oxidative-related cellular pathways. Carnitine may act as a protective antioxidant against SARS-Cov-2 infection by modulating proinflammatory cytokines. Considering the safety profile of carnitine, it may have promising clinical results in alleviating COVID-19 severity and its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis among Patients with Symptomatic Cholelithiasis

Amir Iqbal Memon, Samina Naz, Riaz Ahmed Memon, Aisha Masroor Bhatti, . Nayab, Mansoor Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36120

Background: H. Pylori gastritis is considered to be the causative factor for gallstone disease. Though this infection is reported to be the leading factor contributing to the pathogenesis of gastro-duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Its infestation of the gallbladder and causing chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are still debatable.

Methodology: This study was descriptive cross-sectional in nature, performed on 110 patients (chosen via non-probability, consecutive sampling), presented at Surgical OPD with symptomatic cholelithiasis. All the participants underwend for diagnostic endoscopy and a biopsy was taken for confirmation of h.Pylori gastritis. Those who had positive H. Pylori test, were treated by eradication therapy first and then submitted for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who were negative submitted for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The study lasted 1 year from February 2021 to February 2022.

Results: Among the subjects, 72.7% (n=80) were female, 32.5% were under 40 years old while male gender composed of 17.3% of the sample population. 3/4th of the population hailed from the rural setting. 70.1% (n=78) of the patients had positive H. Pylori test on histopathology.

Upon the findings of diagnostic endoscopy, severe and moderate gastritis was found to be in 25.6% and 74.4% of the participants with positive helicobector gastritis, respectively. A significant association was found out between familial history of gall stones and helicobector pylori gastritis (p=0.02).

Conclusion: A high prevalence of H. Pylori infection is among patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis, which also crossponds to the endoscopic findings. The association between the familial history of gall stones and helicobetor gastritis merits to be explore further to establish the casuality of the relationship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon Oil against Uropathogenic Multidrug Resistant

Rana Thamer Hadi Alkhafaji, M. Jayashankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36121

Cinnamon is known for its antimicrobial activity and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of its essential oil against ten of the multidrug-resistant uropathogenic by agar well diffusion assays.  The diameters of the inhibition zone to the Cinnamon oil were 27 mm for S. aureus, 24 mm for E coli,    20 mm for P.aeruginosa,   22 mm for K.pneumoniae, 23 mm for E.aerogenes & P. mirabilis,    24 mm for E. faecalis, and   27 mm for N.gonorrhoeae, A.baumanni, S.epidermis. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of the cinnamon essential oil are evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the inhibition zone, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Cinnamon was the most effective agent in inhibiting A.baumanni, N.gonorrhoeae, S. epidermis, E. faecalis and E. coli with the lowest MIC (0.0313%) while S.aureus, E. aerogenes and P. aeruginosa with MIC (0.125%) while P. mirabilis was 0.0625% in our study. The MBC was 0. 25% for A.baumanni, 0.5 % for N, gonorrhoeae, S. epidermis, E. faecalis, and K. pneumonia, while 1% S.aureus, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Competency Based Medical Education: An Overview and Application in Pathology

Shruti Vimal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36122

Introduction: The Competency-based curriculum is the turning point in medical education and holds much potential in the current trends of medical transformation in India. It provides an outcome-based approach with the integration of knowledge, skills, attitude, values, and ethics. In comparison to the older curriculum, it differs in clarity, cohesion and has a comprehensive approach.

Methods: The study aims to discuss and evaluate in detail the process and establishment of a competency-based medical curriculum in the pathology department and highlights the ups and downs of the experience. It was set up following the guidelines provided by NMC under competency-based undergraduate curriculum for the Indian medical graduate, state university guidelines references from the internet, and peer review from other institutions.

Results: The new curriculum has bought many positive changes and requires a radical change in the approach of faculty, institution, and students.

Discussion: General preparedness, outgoing and flexible attitude, consistency, and long-term commitment to a transformation from being a facilitator will be the prime needs to make the new “Indian medical graduate.”

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and In vitro Antioxidant Effect of Dodonaea Viscosa Leaves

R. Ramkumar, S. K. Periyasamy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36127

Free extremists are highly responsive substances linked to the pathophysiology of various infections, such as threatening development and disruption. As a result, there is a need to investigate compounds having anti-free radical properties or cell-supporting properties. The assessment's main goal is to look into the in vitro malignant growth avoidance expert development of Dodonaeaviscosa's hydro alcoholic focus point on various invitro models. The D.viscosa hydroalcoholic concentrate was coordinated and exposed to a targeted phytochemical evaluation. DPPH rummaging, decreasing power, and nitric oxide enthusiast gazing investigation were used to examine D.viscosa's invitro cell support activity. Furthermore, the antibacterial progress of plant extract was evaluated on various microorganisms using agar plate dispersing and agar very much spread techniques. Using measures with IC50 values of 68.42, 36.88, and 100 g/ml independently, hydroalcoholic concentrate of D.viscosa exhibited productive restriction of free moderates in DPPH rummaging, lowering power, and nitric oxide gazing. The whole antibacterial activity against the bacterium was genuinely checked out at various concentrate points. D.viscosa hydroalcoholic concentrate is a probable source of commonplace cell fortifications and serves as an effective free outrageous scrounger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Serum Urate Levels and Lichen Planus in Male and Female Patients

Hira Mughal, Shazia Bano, Hafiz Bashir Ahmed Kalhoro, Munazzah Meraj, Zonish Khalid, Sabira Baz Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36128

Aim: To correlate serum urate level in male and female patients with lichen planus (LP) presenting at Dermatology department, Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro.

Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted from 2019 to 2020.Total 126 patients, divided into two equal groups male(n=63) and female (n=63), between the age of 20-50 years and duration of disease from one month after eruption of lesion to 18 months were incorporated in this study. The patients having gout, obesity, chronic kidney disease, Pregnant ladies, smoker and those taking serum urate   lowering drugs or steroids were excluded from this study. After taking history with clinical examination, patients were subject to height, weight, BMI, and duration of disease in months was stated.

Results: Total 126 patients with age range between 20-50 years and the mean age was 32.5 ± 4.47 years in male and 35.3±6.74 years in females were analyzed. The mean BMI was 23.6 ± 2.68 kg/m2 in male and 22.5 ± 3.47 in kg/m2 females were recorded. The mean duration of disease was 35.4 ± 16.92 and 37.12 ± 18.92 weeks were recorded in male and female respectively. The mean serum urate level in Idiopathic Lichen Planus patients was 3.82 ± 0.79 mg/dL in male and 2.3+0.43 mg/dL in female were observed.

Conclusion: Our study results indicate that there is a positive correlation between LP and serum serum urate   levels in male and female patients.

Open Access Review Article

Post-injection Complications. Nicolau Syndrome as a Consequence of Local Irritant Effects of Drugs, Including Antiseptics, Local Anesthetics, NSAIDs, Steroids and Anticoagulants

Aleksandr Urakov, Natalya Urakova, Evgeny Fisher, Ilnur Bashirov, Sabina Nurlanova, Anastasia Klimovich, Albina Fakhretdinova, Anvar Bakirov, Regina Balametova, Aleksandr Samorodov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36123

It has been shown that some drugs considered to be of good quality today can cause an iatrogenic disease known as Nicolau syndrome. Nicolau syndrome is a rare cutaneous drug reaction occurring after injection many drugs. This disease has been found to be caused by the very strong local irritant activity of drug solutions. It turned out that the standard for assessing the quality of drug solutions does not include assessment of their osmotic activity and the strength of their local irritating effect on various tissues during injection. At the same time, drug solutions produced by different pharmaceutical companies may contain, in addition to the main ingredients, other ingredients (hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, propylene glycol, etc.). Very often the additional ingredients increase the osmotic activity of the drug solution, which is not controlled today, so it remains unknown.  This is why drug solutions produced by some pharmaceutical companies can have hypertonic activity, which can sometimes by ignorance reach values that are incompatible with the vital activity of human body tissue cells. Therefore, injections of such drug solutions can have a very strong dehydrating effect on the tissue cells at the injection sites, have a local irritating and cauterizing effect. It has been shown that even steroid solutions in some manufacturers may have excessive hypertonic and acidic activity, which gives them a local irritating effect. This is why in some cases the injection of a steroid solution does not eliminate, but rather increases local inflammation and causes necrosis. Therefore, to exclude postinjection necroses and abscesses, it is proposed to include an assessment of the osmotic activity and local irritant effect of drug solutions in the drug quality control standard and to prohibit the injection of drug solutions with excessive hypertonic activity.

Open Access Review Article

Monoclonal Antibodies: Usage in the Treatment of COVID-19 Infection

Santosh Kumar Rada, Hema Latha Maramreddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i33A36124

Since the COVID-19 emergence in December 2019, significant efforts are being made in the hunt for appropriate medical interventions. This forces scientists to produce or discover traditional curative medications, preventive vaccinations, or passive immunological techniques as quickly as possible. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have drawn a lot of interest throughout this context. COVID-19 approved Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) medications for the outpatient treatment of mild to moderate symptoms for many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) aimed against the Receptor binding domain of the S protein of the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated the feasibility of monoclonal antibodies for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 infection in this review. Human monoclonal antibodies targeted SARS-CoV-2 viral protein domains, especially the spike protein area, and hyper-immune plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients are also included in this review. In summary, monoclonal antibodies are the promising remedies that could be used to regulate the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 infection causal agent) through immunotherapy, vaccine development, and viral screening.