Open Access Short Research Article

Screening of Health Parameters for Future Implications of Students

Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Rafiq Qambrani Soniha Aslam, Muhammad Akram Ansari, Javed Ali Soomro, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Alamgir Khan, Zeliha Selamoglu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36079

This research study aimed to examine the health parameters of students for their future implications. The population of the study was comprised of all the students of the department of sports sciences and physical education, university of the Punjab Lahore Pakistan. One hundred (100) students were selected as a sample by using available sampling technique. For the collection of data, the researcher develops a likert type scale concerning to different parameters of the problem. Thus the developed scale was personally served by the researcher among the respondents and collected back after getting it filled by the respondents. The collected data were processed through statistical package for social science (SPSS, version-26) and similarly mean, standard deviation and percentage were used for the analysis of data. Based on analysis, the findings reveal that respondents of the study having good health status and they are adopting positive healthy habits.

Open Access Short Communication

Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Solution is an Expectorant, Pyolytic, Mucolytic, Hemolytic, and Bleaching Drug for Treating Purulent Diseases, Hematomas and Bruising

Konstantin Gurevich, Aleksandr Urakov, Evgeny Fisher, Zinaida Shubina

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36073

It has been established that warm alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide with local interaction with thick pus, mucus, sputum and blood have local pyolytic, mucolytic and hemolytic effects. It was found that the dissolving effect is associated with the alkaline properties of the drug, which are provided by sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate provides the process of alkaline saponification of proteins and protein-lipid complexes. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide intensively decomposes into water and oxygen gas under the action of the catalase enzyme. In turn, catalase is always present in blood, mucus, sputum, pus, fibrous and serous fluid. At the same time, the released oxygen forms gas bubbles that literally tear apart biological masses during cold boiling and turn them into fluffy white foam. At the same time, the appearance of oxygen in an alkaline environment ensures the process of discoloration of biological pigments, such as hemoglobin and its color metabolites. The indicated pharmacological effect of a warm alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide at local interaction is proposed to be used for the treatment of purulent diseases, thrombosis, bruising and hematomas. The technologies of using the drug for urgent restoration of breathing in obstructive purulent bronchitis, for urgent discoloration of the skin and nail plate with bruising and hematoma, as well as for urgent and safe peeling of a bloody bandage from a wound are listed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Open and Closed Lateral Sphincterotomy in Patients with Chronic Anal Fissure

Ghazi Jamal Abdul Nasir, Gulaqa Sadat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36071

Background: The results and complications of open versus closed lateral sphincterotomy in patients with chronic anal fissure were compared in this prospective study. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of open lateral internal sphincterotomy and closed lateral internal sphincterotomy with a cataract knife in terms of operation time, postoperative pain, faecal and flatus incontinence, and hospital stay.

Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 80 patients with chronic anal fissures. Closed sphincterotomy. They were monitored for eight months after surgery. The two groups' There are 40 patients who will get an open lateral sphincterotomy and 40 who will have a c outcomes and complications were compared and statistically analyzed.

Result: The two groups were compared on post-operative complications such as pain, bleeding, infection, incontinence, and recurrence. The Closed Group Experienced Less Pain, Bleeding, and Incontinence to Flatus (P 0.04), but there was no difference in the incidence of infection or recurrence between the two group.

Conclusion: In the treatment of chronic anal fissures, closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is superior than open sphincterotomy. Chronic Fissure, Closed Method, Lateral Sphincterotomy, Open Method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Expression of Cyclin D1 in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Sana Fatima, Mervyn Hosein, Saima Akram Butt, Faraz Baig, Rehan Ahmed Siddiqui, Fizza Abidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36072

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and to find association of expression of cyclin D1 with different histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Study Design:  It is a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected histopathology laboratory of Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad Karachi. Immunohistochemistry was performed in multiple disciplinary research laboratory of Ziauddin University, Karachi. The duration of study was from January 2021 to January 2022.

Methodology: The present study included taking biopsy samples from oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Patients with history of other oral cavity tumors, patients with history of any other treatment of oral cancer were excluded from the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a total of 150 samples using anti cyclin D1 antibodies.

Results: A total of 150 samples were part of study. Expression of cyclin D1 was found to be present in 77.3% of cases where as 22.7% of cases did not show expression of cyclin D1. A statistically significant association was shown between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma and intensity scoring (p value 0.004). Association between labelling index score for cyclin D1 and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma showed statistically significant p value (0.003). Association of total scores of cyclin D1 with different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma was also found to be statistically significant (p value 0.003).

Conclusion: The present study shows that oncogenic effects on cyclin D1 by mutations caused by oral squamous cell carcinoma can be detected by immunohistochemistry in the form of its overexpression. The association between overexpression of cyclin D1 and different histological grades can be utilize in predicting the oncogenic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low HDL Levels as a Major Risk Factor of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Pakistani Old Age Population

Hafiza Maryam Mushtaq, Zaryab Ali, Kinza Zafar, Muhammad Zarrar Arif Butt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36075

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main source of death around the world, which has turned into an overall general medical condition. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a typical clinical basic disease.

Objective: The basic aim of the study is to analyse the low high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels as a major risk factor of acute myocardial infarction in Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Ghazi Khan Medical College and DHQ Hafizabad between June and November 2021, according to the ethical committee of the hospital. The data was collected from 100 patients of both genders.

Results: The mean age was 45±5.46 years. The extent of male subjects was higher in bunches with high Triglycerides (TG) levels, while the distinction in age was not measurably critical.

Conclusion: It is concluded that low HDL level is noted to be present in a high percentage of acute myocardial infarction patients and can be a major risk contributor to old age patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Polypharmacy among Elderlies Who Attends the Primary Health Care Centers in Medina, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Dhaifallah Hamad Alharbi, Alhanouf Dhaifallah Hamad Alharbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36076

The rising incidence of non-communicable diseases is one of the greatest concerns confronting health systems worldwide in the twenty-first century. The elderly population's high prevalence of non-communicable diseases has increased drug prescriptions. Consequently, polypharmacy, or numerous drugs, has become prevalent. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of polypharmacy among the elderly population in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, who attends primary health care centers. A cross-sectional study was done on 400 participants. 60% of participants were 55-70 years old. 23.7% of elderly participants were with minor polypharmacy, 34.7% of elderly participants were with moderate polypharmacy, and 32.7% of elderly participants were with major polypharmacy as they had more than five medicines at the same time. This study revealed that most participants suffer from chronic health conditions and use high-dose medicines daily. In conclusion, the Saudi Arabia government and the welfare organizations of the Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah must arrange seminars and campaigns to raise awareness about the dependency on medicines and limit the negative effects of polypharmacy among this special group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Diarrhea: Risk Factors and Electrolytes Disturbances in Children of Age 2 Months to 5 Years

Nazia Rehana, Azizullah Langah, Ameer Ali Jamali, Habibullah Siyal, Asif Nadeem Jamali, Fouzia Rasool Memon, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36077

Objectives: Objectives of this study are to determine the risk factors in children with acute diarrhea and to determine the electrolytes disturbances in children with acute diarrhea.

Methodology: A study was conducted at Paediatric Department, PMCH Nawabshah. Total 246 patients, meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study by using non-probability consecutive sampling technique. A written informed consent was taken from attendant to include their child into the study. Children were admitted to in-patient department and serum sodium and serum potassium levels were evaluated through collection of venous blood sample. Risk factors were explored by clinical history and relevant physical examination. All of the data was recorded on pre-designed profroma. Data was entered into statistical package SPSS version 21 for statistical analysis.

Results: Total 246 children were recruited into the study out of which, 160(65%) were males and 86(35%) were females. The median age (in years) was 1.5 with IQR: 0.75 – 2.63. Majority of the children were from rural area (80.1%). The prevalence of risk factor ‘incomplete vaccination’ was high among all risk factors (98.78%). Prevalence for lack of tap water supply, use of bottle feed, lack of breast feed and use of prelacteal feed were 86.58%, 82.5%, 78.05% and 17.1% respectively. The most common electrolyte imbalance was hyponatremia (55.28%) followed by hypokalemia (43.90%), hypernatremia (13.01%) and hyperkalemia (10.16%).

Conclusion: Diarrhea impacted serum electrolytes and children developed dehydration especially hyponatremina and hypokalemia. Therefore, serum electrolytes should be closely monitored among children with diarrheal illness and timely managed with necessary interventions. The frequent risk factors of acute diarrhea were non-compliance to vaccine program, exclusive breastfeeding, and lack of potable water. The findings of current study suggest to give education to care givers so they may properly take care of their offspring. Potable water should be available and used to avoid consequences of utilizing unsafe water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Muscle Town the Health Fitness Prevention of Disease: Using a Mobile App to Improve Fitness and Health

Irfan Ali Kandhro, Fayyaz Ali, Asif Khan, Panhwar Zulqarnain, Baqir Iqbal, Umme Habiba, Al Rayyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i30B36078

In the present era, people are suffering from various diseases the main reason is that make everything easier for us like doing our jobs and travel it has become very easy now a days. Because everything is so easy people have stopped doing hard work which is why they are gaining weight and because of the weight gain, they are getting dangerous diseases like heart disease, blood pressure. The only way to avoid them is to exercise and take care of your diet. Smartphone and smartwatch app developers try to focus on providing easy to understand and easy to navigate user interfaces to get you started quickly. How do you begin using a health or fitness app? The process is simple. By adding health information like your BMI calculator calories counter, age, gender, weight, and inquiries about your various health goals and communicate with chatbot, you can set up a profile relatively quick and painless that matches your needs after you’ve downloaded one. The growth of the mobile app market and the fitness market led to some interesting projects combining both areas to be developed over the last decade.