Open Access Original Research Article

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Reliabe Diagnostic Approach in Supraclavicular Lymph Node Swelling: A Study at Pumhs-W, Nawabshah, Sind, Pakistan

Sikandar-e-Azam Yousfani, Saifullah Brohi, Shazia Bano, Nazia Azam Yousfani, Ashok Kumar, Moin Ul Islam Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36042

Objective: This study was conducted with the aim to approach the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in supraclavicular lymph node swelling at outpatient department.

Methods: The study is cross-sectional, descriptive conducted at General Surgery department Unit-III, of PUMHSW, Nawabshah, Sind, from 1st January 2019 to 31st December 2020. After the written permission from ethical Review Committee of PUMHS-W, all the patients attending Surgical/Medical outpatient department with supraclavicular lymph node swelling and sent for cytological examination from 1st January 2019-31st December 2020 were entered in SPSS-20, after filling of specially designed proforma. All the variables/demographic details were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20.

Results: Total of 153 cases diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, PUMHS-W, and Nawabshah during the two-year period. The most commonly lesion was TB Lymphadenitis 58(38%),and 43(28%) were cases of Reactive Hyperplasia, while the malignant metastatic lesions were 38(25%) and Lymphoma and NHL were positive in 5(3%) cases.

The metastatic lesion were most commonly involve the left side 23(60.5%) and less commonly the bilateral 3(8%) involvement. The common metastatic malignancy found was squamous cell carcinoma 14(37%) followed by adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, ductal carcinoma breast, hepatocellular carcinoma and seminoma, 10(%), 5(% ),2(%), 2(%), 1(%), 1(%), 1(%) respectively.

The most commonly involved age group by mixed lesions were 41-50 years of age, and less common group involved was above 70 years of age. The metastatic malignant lesion were commonly found in 61-70 years of age group and lymphoma and Non Hodgkin Lymphoma were seen up to 60 years of all age groups.

Conclusion: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology is a reliable diagnostic tool as it is cheap, less invasive, and timed modality for diagnosing the supraclavicular lymph node inflammation/metastatic and nodular malignancies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiulcer Activity and Isolation of Chemical Constituents from Ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Ficus Bengalensis

N. Anupama, Jennifer Fernandes, K. Adarsha Govinda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36043

Aims: The screen the antiulcer activity and to isolate the phytoconstituents of stem bark extract of Ficus bengalgensis.

Methodology: The cleaned, dried and powdered stem barks of Ficus bengalgensis were subjected to extraction. The extracts were then packed into column chromatography for the isolation of phytoconstituents and they were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectroscopy. Invivo antiulcer activity were performed by 4-H pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer methods.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates. Isolation of extracts led to give compounds like triterpenoid, a steroid and a flavonoid. The extract was found to be safe up to 2000mg/kg body weight. Antiulcer activity was found significant at level P=05 when compared with control models in experimental animals.

Conclusion: From petroleum ether extract isolated alpha-amyrin acetate, stigmasterol and quercetin from chloroform extract. The presence of triterpenoids, steroids and flavonoid might be responsible for the antiulcer activity of the stem bark extract of Ficus bengalgensis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological and Clinical Presentation of Dengue Infection in the Gadap Region of Karachi. A Survey Based Study

Shazia Azhar, Syeda Shabana Nasir, Syed Mohsin Turab, Hina Abbas, Shaima Sultana Memon, Nimra Qadeer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36044

Introduction: Dengue fever has emerged as a major arboviral disease with a significant impact oF the disease burden in tropical countries.

Aim: The goal of this study was to look at the clinical and laboratory profiles of dengue infection.

Methodology: During 2018 and 2019; a cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of dengue fever in the Gadap region of Karachi, Pakistan.

Results: Positive cases were reported during the study period, which spanned the months of August to December following the monsoon season. Among the 200 positive patients, 160 had dengue fever (DF) and 40 had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (male 160 and female 40). Fever was the most common symptom, followed by Arthralgia/Myalgia, Headache, and Vomiting. Patients with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever had a higher rate of haemorrhage. Thrombocytopenia and leucopenia were discovered to be common laboratory findings in patients with Dengue fever and Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of dengue cases studied could be used to identify patients at risk of severe dengue fever early on.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Pediatricians about Oral Health Care of Children

Seema Imtiaz, Yasir Raza, Shazia Parveen Rajper, Nida Talpur, Sadaf Ali, Munir Ahmed Banglani, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36049

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pediatrician’s according oral health in children.

Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Setting: The study was conducted at LUMHS Jamshoro and civil hospital Hyderabad on January 15th and February 28th 2019.

Methodology: This cross sectional survey of 100 pediatricians including postgraduate trainee of institute of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Science Jamshoro and civil hospital Hyderabad. Distinguish the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pediatricians regarding basic oral health care of children which concluded by questionnaire.

Results: A systemic random sample of 100 pediatricians participated. The pediatrician’s knowledge score was significantly not as good but all pediatricians stated it is important for pediatrician to be familiar with oral health in children.

Conclusion: In the event that there is further assimilation with dentistry, paediatricians' understanding of oral health may and must be enhanced, particularly when doctors are still in Graduation or Post-Graduation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Validation of Carvedilol in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Gaurav Chinchore, Someshwar Mankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36050

Background: Quality may be described as the character that determines the degree of excellence. A good quality medication is anything that meets the product specifications, can be purchased safely, and can be used confidently for the purpose for which it was designed.To obtain a high quality medication, the manufacturing process for producing a drug should have quality integrated into it. Analytical chemistry is the discipline that seeks ever better methods of assessing the chemical composition of natural and manmade materials.

Aims and Objective: Evaluation and validation of carvedilol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Material and Methods: preparation of standard stock solution and preparation of sample solution as per standard protocol.

Result: In the RP-HPLC method, a wavelength of 242 nm was retained and the retention time was found to be 2.9 with optimised conditions. Carvedilol showed linearity in the range of 15.62 -93.75µg/ml. where the peak shape was symmetrical and a good correlation coefficient value was obtained.

Conclusion: RP-HPLC, HPTLC, UV spectroscopy were found to be sensitive, precise, and accurate. However these three methods can be used for the routine analysis of carvedilol from formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block in Lower Abdominal Surgery

Zaigham Din Baloch, Rafia Tabassum, Salman A. Saleem, Muhammad Saleh Khaskheli, Rao Irfan, Muhammad Naeem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36063

Aim: To determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided tranversus abdominis plane blocks in different types of lower abdominal surgery.

Methodology: This study was conducted during July 2018 to December 2018 at the Department of Anesthesiology, Peoples Medical University & Hospital Nawabshah after the approval of ethical review committee PUMHSW Nawabshah, Pakistan. Patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgeries between the age of 18-65 years and American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I to IV were included in this study while those patients with infection at the proposed site of injection, allergy to local anesthetics, bleeding or coagulation disorders were excluded from this study. Informed written consent for the study was taken from all the patients. The sample size was sixty. Patients’ oxygen saturation (SpO2), base line heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and respiratory rate (R/R) was monitored and recorded. Ultrasound guided TAP block was performed after induction of general anesthesia (GA) included Post-Operative pain was determined by visual analog scale (VAS).

Results: A total of 60 patients were included in this study. Distribution of age 38.33% (n=17) for 26-35 years, gender 30% (n=18) male and 70% (n=42) females, height 5.1-5.6 feet in 51.67% (n=31) were observed while weight ≥50kg was observed in 66.67% (n=40) patients. ASA status 58.33% (n=35) stands in ASA status II-IV. Regarding surgical procedures 28.2% (n=17) underwent LS C-Section, 13.3% (n=8) appendectomy, 8.3% (n=5) Prostectomy were observed.

Conclusion: Our study results showed that Ultrasound-Guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) Block provided accuracy and reliability and effective postoperative analgesia when used in surgeries of abdominal wall and minimal requirement of additional parental analgesics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency Risk Factors and Pattern of Congenital Anomalies in Neonates in Nawabshah Pakistan

Sadaruddin Arijo, Ameer Ali Jamali, Azizullah Langah, Asif Nadeem Jamali, Habibullah Siyal, Safdar Ali Jamali, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36092

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency, risk factors and pattern of congenital anomalies in neonates admitted at a tertiary care hospital.

Methodology: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Research was conducted at NICU Pediatric ward, PMCH Nawabshah. Duration of study was 6 months after the approval of synopsis from January 2020 to July 2020. This study involved 300 neonates in NICU which were screened for congenital anomalies. Age, gender and birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Mothers were also enquired about consanguinity and use of folic acid and smoking and diabetic status during pregnancy. Frequency and type of birth defect were noted and were compared across various subgroups based on various neonatal and maternal factors.

Results: The mean age of the neonates was 10.5±7.4 days while the mean birth weight was 2.89±0.74 Kg. There were 174 (58.0%) male and 126 (42.0%) female neonates with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. 77 (25.7%) neonates were low birth weight. Birth defect was noted in 35 (11.7%) neonates. 3 neonates had multiple anomalies. The frequency of birth defects was significantly higher in women with no use of folic acid during pregnancy (14.8% vs. 5.2%; p-value=0.015) and cousin marriage (16.6% vs. 2.8%; p-value<0.001).

Conclusion: In the present study, 11.7% of neonates had birth defects comprising of congenital hydrocele, spina bifida, cleft lip/palate and club foot that were associated with lack of folic acid use during pregnancy and cousin marriages. Public awareness against cousin marriages and antenatal counseling of mothers for routine folic acid use during pregnancy should be assured for this.

Open Access Review Article

Concept and Therapeutic Approach of Intermediate Hyperglycemia with Special Reference to Unani Medicine

Abdul Nasir, Gazala Fatma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i29A36041

Intermediate Hyperglycemia is a category of glucose tolerance representing an intermediate stage between normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and diabetes. Within this category are two subcategories: impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 100 –125 mg/dl) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; defined as a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) plasma glucose concentration of 140 –199 mg/dl). Intermediate Hyperglycemia is not specifically mentioned in Unani medicine, however some classical Unani physicians have described the initial symptoms and factors leading to the pathology. In Unani medicine the risk factors are described in terms of ‘Su-e-mizaj’ as per the concept of Tibb. So, it is considered in the context of Zeyabutus which is described as a disease which develops due to Su-e-mizaj haar (abnormal hot temperament) by the majority of scholars. The two major pathophysiologic defects responsible for losing glucose tolerance are insulin resistance and β-cell glucose insensitivity, both appearing in subjects of Intermediate Hyperglycemia. Symptoms mentioned in Unani medicine may be increased frequency of micturition (ants and flies are attracted to urine), increased thirst, nocturia, dryness of mouth and whole body, fatigue, loss of weight, malaise, cramps in lower extremities.

The drug based approach for management of Intermediate Hyperglycemia is associated with inherent drawbacks, including toxicity, tolerability, cost and efficacy. Oral hypoglycemic drugs are also associated with various side effects as Biguanides cause gastrointestinal upsets, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea and lactic acidosis. There are a number of single Unani drugs like Jamun (Syzigium cuimini), Karela Bark or Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Methi (Trigionella foenum), Bael Leaves (Aegle marmelos), Kalonji (Nigella sativa), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinaceae), Gurmar booti (Gymmema sylvestre) and compound formulations like Qurs Ziyabetus, Qurs Tabasheer, Qurs Kafoor, Qurs Gulnar.