Open Access Short Communication

Synthesis, Characterisation and Evaluation of Azetidine-2-One Derivative

S. Ramachandran, S. Dheepika, M. Deepak, M. Duraiseelan, B. S. Chandru, M. Vijey Aanandhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35992

Antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitubercular, anti-HIV, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and ulcerogenic activities have all been documented for azetidinone derivatives.

The reaction of Schiff base((Z)-N (4-dimethylamino)benzylidene)pyrimidine-2-amine) with chloroacetyl chloride yielded a novel chemical called Azetdine-2-one derivative. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy were used to confirm the chemical structures of the produced substances. The antimicrobial activity shows that the compound showed mild Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assay of Bio Analytical Method for the Estimation of Avelumab and Axitinib Using UPLC and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

S. Prasanthi, G. Himabindu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35988

Aims: Bioanalytical methods for the estimation of Avelumab and Axitinib using UPLC have been validated and may be used in Pharmacokinetic investigations.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Engineering Chemistry, AUCE (A), Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, between September 2021 to February 2022.

Methodology: Using a C18 column (50x2.1 mm, 1.7 ) and an organic mobile phase containing 0.1 percent formic acid and Acetonitrile in a 70:30 ratio, this article provides an overview of recent advances in bioanalytical UPLC procedures.

Results: Avelumab and axitnib had linear calibration curves in the 5-100 ng/ml and 5-100 ng/ml ranges, respectively. Avelumab's precision and accuracy trial results were from 100.18 to 103.94, whereas Axitinib's were 99.39 to 100.81, according to the findings. The LQC and HQC of Avelumab and axitinib were 99.9 and 99.1 percent, respectively, in the matrix effect. There was a 0.67 and a 0.59 percent CV for the two medicines at the LQC and HQC levels respectively. In pharmacokinetic investigations, a simple and effective approach was created and used to observe the analyte of interest in bodily fluids.

Conclusion: It shows that the system's appropriateness, precision, linearity, and accuracy are all in accordance with USFDA criteria and may be used successfully for pharmacokinetic research in rabbits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial and Physicochemical Analysis of Non-sterile Pharmaceutical Liquid Products in Karachi Pakistan

Ghulam Murtaza, Maqsood Ahmed Khan, Zeb –Un Nissa, Shazia Alam, Mehwish Murad, Mehwish Rizvi, Saira Shahnaz, Syed Imran Ali, Sana Ghayas, Sadia Suri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35989

The pharmaceutical products and their therapeutic efficacy were comprised' due to the involvement of both physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the pharmaceuticals. However, liquid preparations are highly at risk due to the high percentage of sucrose contains that is beneficial for the growth of microbes. The inspection was to find to judge the microbial and physicochemical qualities of samples of paracetamol and cetirizine sold in Karachi, Pakistan. Three hundred fifty (350) pharmaceuticals brand were investigating; their organoleptic properties such as density, color, pH, test and total content of active ingredients, total viable count, and type of microbe of samples. These tests were conducted followed by the standard techniques and procedure. Assess the brands of paracetamol and cetirizine samples were meet the standard microbial specifications. The result of the organoleptic test was sweet, according to the color sample was found green, pink, red, yellow, and transparent liquids. The density of samples fluctuated between (1.150 - 1.390) g/ml. Similarly, the pH of the samples was recorded between (4.72 - 6.10). The active ingredient concentration of both samples was observed, ranging from 99% - 104%. The microbial limit many tests were conducted for the observation; the absence of 5 specified microbes in non-sterile pharmaceutical preparation. Pseudomonas sp. Escherichia coli (E-coli), salmonella spp, Staphylococcus spp, and Candida Albicans. All the samples of paracetamol and cetirizine were found contaminated under the acceptable limit. This observation explained that the ten brands of paracetamol and cetirizine sold in the pharmacy of Karachi Pakistan were complying with specifications of pharmacopeia, about both physicochemical and microbial characteristics analyzed dosage form fit for used and acceptable for pediatric and geriatric patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smart Health Monitoring System (SHMS) an Enabling Technology for Patient Care

Irfan Ali Kandhro, Fayyaz Ali, Syeda Nazia Ashraf, Muhammad Abdul Aleem, Rasheeda Ali Hassan, Ali Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35990

Health Monitoring System is a sophisticating technology and another way to the normal/regular management of the health of the patient. This Health Monitoring Mobile Application is a contribution from our side to the public and to the overall health industry in Pakistan. With the help of Health mobile application, the users will be able to store their medical records, prescriptions and retrieve them later. The users can store and keep track of their vital readings (heart rate, blood pressure, fasting glucose, random glucose). The mobile application also shows hospitals that are nearby in case the user wants to avail of any medical help. An important feature of the application is the symptoms-based disease prediction, the user selects the symptoms which he has and then the application will name certain diseases that match those symptoms based on relevant algorithms. The major advances and issues have been discussed, and as well as potential tasks to health monitoring will be identified and evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Therapeutic Effects of Percutaneous Compression Plate for Femoral Neck Fractures in Young and Middle-Aged Patients: A Retrospective Multicenter and 2-Year Follow-Up Study

Changbao Wei, Haifeng Li, Liansheng Dai, Dong Lu, Weichun Meng, Sanjun Gu, Yu Liu, Qudong Yin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35991

Introduction: Traditional internal fixators include hollow compression screw (HCS) and sliding hip screw for femoral neck fractures have a high incidence of complications, and are not conducive to postoperative early rehabilitation and weight-loading of patients. Therefore, femoral neck fractures are referred to as ‘unresolved fractures’. However, single-center results of percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) have showed a significant improvement in efficacy. We retrospectively analyzed the therapeutic effects of PCCP for femoral neck fractures in young and middle-aged patients in a multi-center and >2-year follow-up.

Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2017, 331 patients with femoral neck fractures in young and middle-aged patients fixed with HCS and PCCP in four hospitals were studied retrospectively.

Results: There were 182 men and 149 women, with an average age of 47.69 years (age range, 20-65 years). HCS group vs. PCCP group (170 vs. 161). There was no significant difference in the baseline data between the two groups (P>0.05). All patients were followed-up for 24-60 months (mean, 36 months). The operative time and intraoperative bleeding were significantly decreased, whereas the hospital stay significantly longer in HCS group than those in PCCP group (P<0.05). Nonunion in 17 cases and fixation failure in 14 cases in HCS group, whereas 3 and 0 cases, respectively, in PCCP group, showing significant difference (P<0.05). Avascular necrosis (AVN) in 17 cases in HCS group while 15 cases in PCCP group, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The overall complications in HCS group were greater than that in PCCP group (P<0.05). The Harris hip scores at 6- and 12-month follow-up in group PCCP were significantly improved than those in group HCS (P<0.05), but not significant at 18-, 24- month and last follow-up between the two groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that PCCP is a stable and reliable internal fixation device with sliding compression effect for femoral neck fractures, which has satisfactory short and mid-term therapeutic effects, but AVN remains unsolved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Depth of Invasion as Tumor Indicator in Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in OSCC

Fizza Abidi, Sana Fatima, Abeeha Zaidi, Saima Butt, Shafaq Saeed, Hira Batool

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35993

Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is the 6th common cancer of the world and a major source of malignancy around the world. The best prognostic indicators for the occult lymph node metastasis are tumor depth of invasion and lymph node biopsies.


Aims:. This study was conducted to assess the association of tumor depth of invasion and lymph nodes metastasis in oral cancer diagnosis at its initial stage.

Study design: Cross-Sectional Study design.

Place and Duration of Study:. Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad campus, Karachi. January 2021 to January 2022.

Methodology: This Cross sectional study was conducted at the Ziauddin hospital, North nazimabad after Ziauddin University  Ethical Review Committee approval (Reference

Code: 0330618FAOM).140 biopsied surgical resection specimen slides were included the slides were evaluated by 3 investigators.

Results: . The mean age of 140 OSCC was found to be 46.87 ± 12.25 years. 80.7% of study population comprised of males. 50% of patients had T4 stage.  Moderately differentiated grade (89.3%) was the most predominnant  grade observed in this study. on the basis of DOI the patients were divided into 2 groups. One Group  with Depth of invasion upto 4 mm and second group with Depth of invasion >4 mm. depth of invasion above 4 mm was found  in 82.1% and without nodal metastasis(40.7%). The mean tumor size was was found  to be  4.36± 2.433 mm and tumor thickness was 1.95±1.48 mm. and the most common anatomical site was found  to be  buccal mucosa (73.6%). T Stage and Nodal status,Tumour thicknes showed significant association with depth of invasion  with p values  0.001,  0.023 and  0.002 respectively.

Conclusion: The tumor depth of invasion is found to be an important  variable that can be related  with  metastasis in Oral cancer  as  our  study showed its significant association with lymph node meatastasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) about Self-medication among Adult Population of Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Daud Ali, Ayaz Ahmad, Sharell Lewis, Latha Kannan, Faten Abdullah Sadek, Zahra Ammar Al Tawal, Md Salahuddin Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35997

Introduction: Self-medication can be described as the use of medications with therapeutic intent without prescription or supervision of the physician. The World Health Organization has considered Self- medications as one of self-care elements that comprise hygiene, nutrition, lifestyle, living condition, and income level. Self- Care is a practice that people do, to maintain wellness and prevent illness. Hence current study conducted to measure the prevalence of knowledge and attitude about self- medication practice among the communities of Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 532 participants via an online survey. Survey questionnaire was distributed over the Social media platform.

Results: The results indicate that among the age group 15 to 25 years (43.42%) there’s a high incidence of self-medication practice. Gender comparison indicated that females demonstrated a high prevalence of self-medication than males. Analysis of information from the university graduate students indicated that self-medication was high (46.05%) related with the knowledge of the medications (68.6%). Major medicine that was being used to self-medicate was Analgesic/painkiller (80.26%). It is essential to mention that the use of antibiotic was slightly low (12%). Among the health problems that provoked self-medication, headache was the main health problem (58.83%).

Conclusion: Self-medication was found to be alarmingly high among the population of Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. So, it is imperative to increase the awareness among the population about the risk of this practice and how to practice self-medication more responsibly to avoid unwanted outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Levofloxacin Combinations on CRP Decrease in SARS CoV-2 Pneumonia

Bayrakçi Onur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35998

Objective: Covid 19 pneumonia, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a disease with severe damage to the lung. It was reported that in Covid 19, rate of 74%  antibiotics were used, and secondary bacterial infections were detected in at least 17.6% of the patients who used antibiotics. In this study, the effects of antibiotics in Covid 19 patients who do not use the steroid ​​on CRP decrease were aimed.

Materials and Methods: It was done in Ersin Arslan Training and Research Hospital Covid Wards between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020. The study included with positive PCR test (SARS-CoV-2), 18 age and more than, with pneumonia in CT, but users of steroid  were excluded. Ages, genders, comorbidities, WBC values, neutrophil values, CRP values (​​in the first 24 hours and the 3rd day), lung involvements in CT and antibiotics ​​of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Accordingly, a total of 202 patients who compatible criteria were included in the study.  Chi Square Test was used in the statistical analysis of the data.

Results: The mean age was 60.2±2.57 (19-89). 53.9% of the patients were males and 46.1% females. There was a history of chronic disease in 54.9% of the patients. Findings of pneumonia in CT were 67.8% multifocal, and 32.2% unifocal. Covid 19 pneumonia was more often in males, in over 60 ages and in have a history of chronic disease. Antibiotics used were levofloxacin (L) and combined levofloxacin with piperacillin/tazobactam (LT) and meropenem (LM) and ceftriaxone (LC). When the 1st and 3rd day CRP values ​​were compared; as L<LT<LM<LC rate of decrease were calculated. It was determined that LM and LC were preferred more often in patients with comorbidities. There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of decrease on CRP values ​​of levofloxacin and its combinations in patients with normal WBC values.

Conclusion: According to this study, in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia; there is no significant difference between the rates of decrease on CRP values ​​of levofloxacin and its combinations. Antibiotics should be preferred if bacterial infection is suspected when the patient's clinic and infection parameters are evaluated. It should be taken into account that secondary coinfection rates are not high in the selection of antibiotics in Covid 19. Further studies are needed to detect bacterial coinfections early in patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Case Based Learning as a Teaching Learning Tool for Microbiology

V. Kalpana Devi, C. Senthil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A35999

Introduction: Medical and health care related education is currently changing. In the present day scenario, didactic lectures are the main stay of teaching Microbiology in most of the medical Colleges. However didactic lecture is a teaching centered method that promotes passive learning. Active learning that integrates the knowledge of basic sciences with clinical conditions is the need of the hour. Case Based learning (CBL) is an interactive student centered approach that engages students in the process of making real world decisions.

Aim: The present study has been planned to assess the effectiveness of case based learning as compared to traditional lecture in teaching Microbiology and also to find out the students and faculty perception on Case based learning.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Two diseases namely Hepatitis-B and Rabies were selected. Study involved 104 students from II MBBS and they were divided into two groups. Group A underwent a CBL session on Hepatitis-B and Group B had the Didactic lecture session on the same topic and the groups were crossed for the second phase on Rabies. Pre and post-test were conducted for both the groups and the results were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test. Lastly structured feedback questionnaire on acceptability and usefulness of CBL was obtained from the students and the faculty.

Results: The performance of the students showed a significant improvement after the CBL sessions when compared to the Didactic lecture. Majority of the students felt that CBL is better in understanding Microbiology topic.

Conclusion: The present study shows that CBL is a better method than Didactic Lectures. Therefore CBL can be used as an adjunct to the lectures to strengthen the traditional T/L methods through active learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Varying Parameters on the Properties of Effervescent Paracetamol Tablets for Paediatrics

E. Agbamu, M. I. Arhewoh, U. J. Osunde, L. U. Nwankwo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i27A36011

Aims: This study was aimed to determine the effect of varying parameters on the properties of effervescent paracetamol tablets for paediatrics.

Study Design: This analytical study was carried out on effervescent paracetamol tablets formulated with differing formulation parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta State University and Abraka from April 2017 to November, 2017.

Methodology: Different formulations of effervescent paracetamol tablets were produced through wet granulation method using varied concentrations of citric acid (15, 20 and 25 %) and sodium bicarbonate (15, 20 and 25 %) as the major effervescent ingredients. The powder blends were evaluated for angle of repose, tapped and bulk density to determine its flow property. The prepared tablets were further evaluated using the unofficial test for hardness, friability and thickness as well as the official tests for weight uniformity, disintegration time, carbon dioxide (CO2) content, water content and pH.

Results: Angle of repose ranged from 23.96 ± 1.97o - 28.84 ± 0.91o, Hausner’s ratio ranged from 1.16 ± 0.02 – 1.25 ± 0.02 while Carr’s index ranged from 14 ± 1.73 - 20 ± 1.15. All the granules had good flow properties while granules for F3 was the optimized formulation. Friability values were from 0.38 - 0.39 %. Tablets disintegrated between 3 ± 43.06 to 5 ± 16.3 min. The effervescence time in all formulations was between 3 to 5 mins with batch F3 giving the best effervescence time.

Conclusion: Granules made with Formulation F3 had the optimized flow characteristics. Effervescent paracetamol tablets containing 25% each of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate had the most desired properties as increase in both the concentration of the citric acid and sodium bicarbonate led to a decrease in the disintegration and effervescence time.