Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Sphenoidal Sinusitis with Brain Abscess in a 16 Year Old

S. Arthanareeswaran, R. Nithya, M. Gayathri, Merlin Jose, B. Monica, R. Muthuselvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35969

A pyogenic infection-induced brain abscess is rare, and usually affects immunocompromised people. Brain imaging and bacterial culture from the infection site are used to diagnose a brain abscess. An effective treatment method is surgical resection combined with antibiotic treatment with bacteria-sensitive antibiotics for a sufficient period of time.

Presentation of the Case: A 16-year-old boy was confirmed to have Sphenoidal Sinusitis. The patient had been diagnosed with dengue fever three weeks ago and corona infection four months ago. And finally, he was diagnosed with Sphenoidal Sinusitis which manifested as severe headache, vomiting, and fever. He underwent bilateral Functional Endoscopy Sinus Surgery (FESS), sphenoidotomy and also temporal craniotomy and evacuation of abscess.

Conclusion: The treatment of a brain abscess requires early diagnosis, appropriate surgical treatment, and adequate duration of therapy with effective antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Video-assisted Instruction and Conventional Teaching Method’s Effects on Students’ Performance in Root Canal Obturation during COVID- 19 Pandemic

Soheila Darmiani, Mahla Ahmadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35965

Background: The purpose of root canal treatment is to prepare the root canal and obturate the entire the root canal reliably. The traditional method of teaching endodontics to dental students is the live conventional demonstration (CD)., Video –assisted clinical instruction in dentistry (VACID) is an educational tool that uses video-images to complement dental education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of VACID and CD on the performance of dental students in obturating the root canal.

Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, thirty undergraduate dental students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2021 were included in the study. They were equally divided in to three groups(n=10). and received instructions on root canal obturation via CD, VICAD and CD plus VICADThen, two endodontists evaluated the clinical performance of the students based onfinal radiographs of obturated root canals.blindly . Each student's score was calculated from 20.  Data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square tests.

Results: The mean± standard deviation(SD) grade point average (GPA) of students were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.398). The mean score of students' performance in all groups was not significantly different from each other (P> 0.05). The mean score of students' performance in terms of their gender in all three groups was not significantly different from each other (P> 0.05). The mean score of students' performance in terms of GPA in terms of evaluating teachers was not significantly different from each other (P> 0.05).

Conclusion: The use of new educational methods, such as the production of educational videos, will be as effective as the usual demonstration methods for the performance of dental students during corona virus pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI)/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) and Hydrocortisone in COVID-19 Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

Faisal Asad, Abdul Aziz Sahito, Madiha Moin, Urwah Ikhlaq, . Ubedullah, Fasih Ur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35966

Objective: The purpose of study was to assess the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and hydrocortisone in patients with COVID-19 and their outcome during hospitalization.

Materials and Methods: A clinical comparative prospective hospital-based study was conducted in the Department of Pulmonology & Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Dow University of Medical & Health Sciences, Karachi in patients positive for COVID-19 infection during their hospitalization. A comparative analysis was performed between two groups, i) those who received an injection of hydrocortisone and ii) those who received oral ACEi/ARB. All the baselines and clinical variables were recorded in a structured questionnaire and the data were evaluated in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. A p-value of <0.05 is considered statistically significant.

Results: The final analysis was performed on 130 patients among them 68 patients received an injection of hydrocortisone and 62 patients received the tablet ACEi/ARB, which ever indicated. Patients who need injection hydrocortisone were older than patients who received ACEi/ARB, 58.37±15.20 and 51.01±90.22. Patients who received injection hydrocortisone were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation support as compared to other groups, 11.7% vs. 4.8%, respectively, p-value 0.02. The overall mortality rate was 10% (n = 13) in both groups in which a higher number of deaths was observed in patients who were taking ACEi/ARB as compared to patients who were receiving injection hydrocortisone, 12.9% vs. 7.3%, respectively, but it had an insignificant association, p-value 0.17.

Conclusion: We have observed in our study that patients who received an injection of hydrocortisone had lower rates of mortality irrespective of their gender and age while patients who received ACEi/ARB during hospitalization had lower complications rate but higher mortality rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sub-acute Toxicity and Safety Study of Mecca Myrrh (Commiphora opobalsamum) by Experimental Histological Analysis

Lateef M. Khan, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar Ahmad, Akram A. Al – Salmi, Soad S. Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35967

Background: The native herbal medicinal products are vital source of the key medication; their excellent dogmatic safety study is of prime importance despite their strong validated evidence of efficacy.

Aim: To study the sub-acute toxicity of Commiphora opobalsamum (CO) by histological analysis of vital organs.

Methods: Twenty-four male Wister rats of 10-12 weeks age were used. Oral toxicity studies with repeated dose were accomplished in four group of rats, six rats were included in each group. Three groups of rats were administered CO orally in the graded doses of 250,500, and 1000 mg/kg/day once daily for 14 days Vs normal control. Determination the relative weight of vital organs and their histological changes were performed at the end of the study. Subsequently, the digital images of the CO - administered groups were equated with the control group.

Results: Intriguingly, the relative weights of the vital organs, performed following 14 days of graded doses of CO given were equated with the control group, significant differences were not detected (p˃0.05). Furthermore, histological examination of the brain demonstrated no changes in its cellular neuronal components Regarding the heart, CO extract did not produce any histological changes, insignificant changes were observed in liver parenchyma of rats, regarding the kidney, no degenerative changes were noticed in glomerular tuft capillaries or renal tubular epithelium, conversely trivial changes were observed in liver parenchyma. Finally, no minor histological changes were observed in stomach (high dose) and spleen tissue of animals on comparison with the control group.

Conclusion: Seemingly, the impressive outcome of this fundamental histological scrutiny of methanolic extract of CO demonstrated an imperative facet of safety and correspondingly displayed the key feature of its nontoxic medicinal application for short term supplementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statin as a Risk Factor for Cataract in Cases of Antioxidant Gene Polymorphism in Pakistani Population

Atif Mahmood, Qamer Aziz, Ruqaya Nangrejo, Iftikhar Ahmed Siddiqui, Mohammad Saleh Soomro, Iffat Ara Aziz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35968

Introduction: Cataract is main cause of reversible blindness and visual impairment. Risk factors include anti-hyperlipidemic drugs such as statin. However, the mechanism of statins as a risk factor for cataracts is not clear. The antioxidant effect of statin is reported in some studies while other studies showed negative results. This study was conducted to understand the association of cataract in statin users with antioxidant gene abnormalities.

Objective: To investigate the risk factor of statin in the formation of cataracts in the Pakistani population.

Methods: This was a multi-centric case-control study in Karachi, Pakistan between September 2019 and 2020. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at rs2070424 locus for superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene, at rs1050450  for glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and rs7943316 locus for catalase (CAT), were examined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using high resolution melting curve (HRM) technique in 250 cataract patients.

Results: The risk ratio with statin was seen and found that it was 1.5 times increased in SOD1 gene mutations, the statin benefit was 1.2 times reduced in GPX gene mutation and ratio was 1.1 in the CAT gene mutations.

Conclusion: Statin is a risk factor for cataracts in those patients who have mutated antioxidant genes. The risk ratio of cataracts was found to be increased in the mutated genes of patients compared with non-mutated ones. This study proved the effect of statin as a risk factor associated with antioxidant genes in the development of cataracts in the Pakistani population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude and Mental Health Effects Related to COVID 19 in Dental Patients

Sudesh Kumar, Syed Yawar Ali Abidi, Muhammad Elham Habib, Isma Sajjad, Samira Adnan, Maham Muneeb Lone, Sarmad Suleman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35970

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the mental health effects and attitude of male and female patients visiting Dental OPD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials and methods: This Descriptive study was conducted amongst patients visiting dental setup of Jinnah Sindh medical university and Jinnah postgraduate center. Consent was taken before participation in the study. Patients visiting dental OPD (SIOHS and JPMC) were requested to fill the hardcopy of the questionnaire. Co-authors translated and filled the questionairre for those patients who were unable to read and write. Mental health status and attitude regarding COVID-19 were assessed through closed-ended questions.

Results: Compared to males, females were more afraid of becoming infected with COVID-19 (p-value 0.018), affected more emotionally with COVID-19 pandemic (p-value 0.042), were wearing mask more frequently (p-value 0.038) and were more afraid dental treatment due to COVID-19 (p-value 0.023). With increase in qualification there was increase in COVID-19 fear (p-value 0.028), emotional effect (p-value 0.000) and effect on daily routine (p-value 0.002).  

Conclusion: Majority of the participants visiting the dental OPD were unaware of the preventive measures to protect themselves from COVID-19. As compared to males, female patients were more concerned and had a positive attitude towards protection from COVID-19. Furthermore, this attitude was more in people who were more educated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study between Bone Marrow- mesenchymal Stem Cells and Adipose Tissue- mesenchymal Stem Cells in Restoration of Male Fertility

Osama Fouad Ahmed Ebrahim, Saadia A. Shalaby, Essam M. Eid, Mai H. Abdel Samad Ibrahim, Eman Mohamed Faruk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35971

Background: Male infertility is considered a major cause of couple infertility as it represents 25- 50 % of infertility cases. In addition, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) represents 10% of all infertile men.There is no definite curable treatment for such cases.

Aim of Work: The purpose of this research was to assess the efficacy of BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs in treating busulfan-induced azoospermia in wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: BM-MSCs were extracted from the femur bones of five adult Wistar rats and AT-MSCs from preperitoneal adipose tissue. They were then evaluated for morphology, MSC markers, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. To produce azoospermia in male Wistar rats, two doses of busulfan (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during a 21-day period. The seminiferous tubules of each testis were injected with 2.5106 MSCs 35 days after the second busulfan injection. 12 weeks after cell therapy, the testes were examined histopathologically and histomorphometrically.

Results: Like the control group, the seminiferous tubules treated with BM-MSCs demonstrated normal spermatogenesis in compared to the busulfan-induced azoospermic testes. In contrast to the busulfan-induced azoospermic testes, the seminiferous tubules treated with AT-MSCs exhibited a practically typical look of spermatogenesis.

Conclusion: BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were shown to be beneficial in treating azoospermia in the wistar rat model, restoring fertility to busulfan-induced azoospermic animals after MSC transplantation. As a result, this discovery may pave the way for the future use of MSCs in the treatment of human azoospermia, although more research should be conducted to confirm the findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exercise Electrocardiogram Testing in Asymptomatic Patients with Diabetes and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

Hira Amjad, Ifrah Sharif, Shazam Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35972

Objectives: The main objective of the study is to find the exercise electrocardiogram testing in asymptomatic patient with Type-II diabetes and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted Fatima Jinnah Hospital, Lahore during January 2019 to November 2019. The data was collected from 50 patients of type II DM. These all patients has normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and normal systolic function. 

Results: The data was collected from 50 patients of both genders. The mean age of the patients was 47.83±5.61 years. After getting data the results were divided into two parts. There were 25 patients in group A and 25 patients group B. The mean duration of diabetes is 2.5±5.61 years. There were 20 males and 30 females in this data. There were no significant difference of fasting blood sugar in both groups. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding left atrial dimension, aortic root dimension, LV end-diastolic dimension, ejection and LV mass.

Conclusion: It is concluded that It is concluded that coronary supply route sicknesses is a typical issue in DM, with diastolic brokenness and increment uniquely in patients with positive pressure practice electrocardiography.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Dental Anxiety in Children by Estimating the Salivary Cortisol Levels before and after Dental Procedures

Pavithiraa Sankar, E. M. G. Subramanian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35973

Aim: Dental procedures in general range from simple examination to complex stressful procedures like extractions. This can cause varied levels of anxiety in children based on the severity and duration of the procedure. This study was designed with the aim to assess changes in salivary cortisol levels due to the various dental procedures carried out in children.

Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of a total of 30 children of the 5-9 age group whose parents consented to examination and further treatment. Children who had been given a Frankl score of positive (+) or definitely positive (++) upon initial examination were only included in the study. Children with negative (-) and definitely negative (--) Frankl scores, any history of systemic diseases, on corticosteroid therapy, having fever, or medically compromised were excluded from the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected before and after the procedure and was analysed using ELISA. The data collected was statistically analysed and assessed for significance.

Results: Out of the 30 children 17 were boys and 13 were girls and the difference was statistically insignificant. There was no significant difference in age between the genders (P = 0.12). Paired t - test was done to analyse the intra group data and ANOVA test was done to compare between the groups. Compared to the three procedures restorative was least stressful whereas extractions were most stressful and this result was statistically significant.  

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that salivary cortisol is a good indicator of acute stress. Extraction procedures seem to be the most stressful of all the procedures.

Open Access Review Article

Study on Molecular Basis of Cancer Induced Angiogenesis

Adithi Sanikommu, Sai Akshita Vaddi, Vandana Yeddula, Lakshmi Saatvika Manikyala, Chaitanya Krishna Kommineni, Lakshmi Prasanna Sanikommu, Susmitha Rani Talla, Praveen Kumar Vemuri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i26A35974

Cancer is a disease caused by defective cells that have an uncontrollable ability to proliferate without regard for the physiological organ. Cancer is a complicated multi-factorial, multi-staged, and multi-mechanistic disease. Within the initiation and course of manifestation, it comprises the interaction of environmental and host elements. Inherited genetic dispositions have a significant role in 5-10% of breast cancer cases and 5- 13% of colon cancer cases. Viral infections cause about 7% of cancer fatalities in developed countries; 4% are due to occupational hazards; 2% are due to sunlight; 2% are due to pollution of air, water, and soil; and less than 1% are due to food components and business products.