Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Closest Speaking Space in Different Angle’s Classification of Occlusion

Sumera Jaseem, Naseem Kashif, Muslim Khuhro, Naveed Memon, Mohd Rizwan Memon, Hina Akhlaq Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35955

Aim: To determine closest speaking space in different Angle’s malocclusion classes.

Study design: Descriptive Cross Sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: .Department of Prosthodontics, Liaquat University of medical and Health Sciences Hospital during period of July 2021 - Dec 2021.

Methodology:Total  111  Patients  from  both  genders  with  age  range  18-45  with  intact  1st  and  2nd premolars were alginate impressions were taken. Polysiloxane Elastomeric impression material bites in 1.5cm thickness were placed bilaterally on occlusal surfaces of mandibular premolars and molar teeth in patients oral cavity. Patients were instructed to swallow and repeat the Sindhi Language word “SASSI”. The elastomeric material bite blocks were removed and thickeness was noted down for each patient at premolar region using digital vernier calliper. The measurements were recorded in millimetres.

Results: A total of 111 patients were examined, with an average age of 35 years and a range of 18 to 45 years (Table 1). Males made up 56 % of the population, while females consists of 44 % (Figure 1). According to occlusion, the majority of patients had class I 50 (45 %), class III 29 (26.1 %), and class II div I and II 16 (14.4 %) correspondingly (Table 2). According to the mean closest speaking space, it was highest in class II div II 7.05+2.38 mm and  in class II div I 4.81+3.47 mm, with 2.02+0.75 mm in class I and 1.20+1.08 mm in class III (Table 3).

Conclusion: It was concluded that closest speaking space was significantly increased in angles class II patients whereas decreased in angles class III.

Open Access Original Research Article

Magnitude of Prevalence of Refractive Errors in School-age Children: A Cross-sectional Study

Imtiaz Ahmed Gilal, Mahtab Alam Khanzada, Azfar Ahmed Mirza, Mona Liza Mahesar, Ghulam Hyder Sahito, Urooj Bhatti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35956

Aim: To determine the frequency of refractive errors in school-age children.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and duration: Two Government and two Private schools of Hyderabad Sindh, screened by the institute of ophthalmology at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, from January 2021 to June 2021.

Methodology: Schools and students were selected by stratified random method; a total of four hundred students were screened in four schools. From class one to class ten, 10 students were selected from each class. Prior written permission was obtained from parents. External ocular examination, visual acuity, pinhole test, autorefraction, and fundus examination were done and recorded on proforma along with the information regarding age, sex, family history, and parent’s education. The data was entered and analyzed by SPSS version 22.

Results: In government schools 27 students out of 200 had refractive errors, myopia was present in 15 (55.55%) students, hypermetropia in 7 (25.93%) students and astigmatism in 5 (18.52%) students, while in private schools 25 students had refractive errors. Myopia was present in 16 (64%) students, hypermetropia in 7 (28%) students and astigmatism in 2 (8%) students. Myopia and astigmatism were more prevalent in female sex being 8.1% and 2% respectively, while in males it was 6.4% and 1.4% cases. In this study, no significant refractive error difference was found between government and private sector schools.

Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of refractive errors was 13% (52) out of 400 students. Refractive errors are the most common and easily treatable causes of decreased vision in school-aged children. It is recommended that visual acuity be checked prior to admission to school because refractive errors can be easily corrected with glasses. If it is treated in time, the child can be prevented from amblyopia and squint.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Dental Practitioners towards Palliative Dental Care: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study

Christina Pereira, Siddharth Acharya, Treville Pereira, Subraj Shetty, Swari Gotmare, Ruchika Kallianpur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35957

Introduction: Palliative care is active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. In a multidisciplinary approach for rendering palliative care, a dentist’s role is vital, but overlooked. Oral cavity is home to numerous microorganisms aggravating disease process. A trained dentist helps treat and manage oral manifestations of systemic diseases from diagnosis to relief from pain and discomfort. Dental expression in palliative care is extended dental services to provide preeminent feasible oral care to terminally ill or advanced diseased patients. Oral conditions impact quality of life of patients and initiation and progression of these lesions may be related to the succession of disease, its treatment or both.

Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of dental practitioners towards palliative dental care.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational questionnaire-based study conducted on 50 dental academicians and practitioners across Mumbai which included specialists in Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery, Prosthodontics and Oral Pathology. A closed-ended, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire would be prepared for the study.

Results: All participants completed their masters in dental surgery. Eighty five percent participants had come across patients requiring palliative care. All except 4 male and 1 female respondent acknowledged importance of palliative care in dentistry. 56.8% participants were aware of hospitals providing palliative dental care. All participants considered palliative care to be interdisciplinary. 94 participants believed dental problems to be common in palliative care. Majority respondents suggested a sugar-free diet while 19 proposed a spicy diet for cases requiring palliative care. Fluoride based mouthwash was recommended by 40 participants and 30 recommended chlorhexidine based while 10 preferred alcohol-based. While 70 participants had not attended any seminars, workshops, symposiums and/ or conferences on palliative care, 80 were willing to do so.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Bite Opening on Masseter and Geniohyoid Muscles: A Randomised Clinical Trial

K. R. Abiraj, Reji Abraham, B. N. Abin Mohammed, Reyas Y. Rasool, Fadhil Mohammed, A. C. Mohammed Ihjas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35958

Objective: To evaluate the effects of anterior bite plane on the masseter and geniohyoid muscle thickness.

Materials and Methods: 14 subjects who needed bite opening were allocated as a single group with mean age of 17.4± 3.4 years and mean overbite of 5.3±0.2 was treated with a fixed anterior bite plane (ABT). The pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment results (T2) was compared to study the effect of Bite opening. The ultrasonographic imaging was used to evaluate masseter muscle thickness (clenched and relaxed) and geniohyoid muscle thickness. 

Results: The study showed, the right masseter muscle thickness (RMT) in (R) at T1 was 8.68 ± 1.13 mm, T2 was 7.68 ± 1.14 mm and in (C) 0.72 ± 1.39 mm and 9.86 ± 1.35 mm respectively While left muscle thickness (LMT) was at 8.54 ± 1.3 mm and 7.68 ± 1.3 mm respectively.  The mean geniohyoid muscle thickness before treatment was 6.58 ±0.69 mm and after treatment was    7.40 ± 0.69 mm with an increase in thickness of 0.8 ±0.04 mm.

Conclusion: Bite opening procedure influence the muscles thickness, with reduction of masseter muscle thickness and increase in geniohyoid muscle thickness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacist Intervention and Medication Errors at DHQ Hospital Bannu KP, Pakistan

Surayia Shahab Rani, Fahim Ullah Khan, Hidayat Ullah Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Mir Sadiq Shah, Jamil Ur Rehman, Autif Hussain Mangi, Muhammad Nasir Younis, Hafiz Muhammad Irfan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35960

Deaths related to drug errors are common in Pakistan, but these are not accurately reported. Since medication management is the main responsibility of nurses, it is vital that they have a good understanding of high alert of medication error. Patient health care, particularly drug fortification, is the main exertion and the challenge for healthcare professionals around the world. The profession of a pharmacist is world-renowned for providing medical care to patients. Herein, we aim to assess the role of pharmacist according to medications error in Government sectors hospitals located in district Bannu Kp Pakistan.

We collected a total number of 368 outdoor prescriptions from July 2011 to December 2011 from District Head Quarter Hospital, Bannu (DHQB). We found 71% of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), 32% of inapt dosage faults and 35% of management errors among them. Male patients with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction had a higher MEs ratio than female patients. According to the findings, clinical pharmacists in hospital wards must provide prompt counseling to primary care doctors during the prescription process, as well as management recommendations to nursing staff and other auxiliary medical employees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) Study on Diabetic Foot Care among Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Foot Lesions in District Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Tahira Shamim, Laila Sumreen, Ghazala Shaheen, Hafiz Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Qamar-Uz-Zaman, Jafir Hussain Shirazi, Qazi Adnan, Rida Tanveer, M. Sajid-Ur-Rehman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35962

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multifactorial metabolic illness that is characterized by numerous chronic complications. Diabetes affects almost every system of the body. Among these diabetic foot is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus. Its main objective was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and foot care practices in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic foot lesions. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was designed to be conducted at Civil Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Total 150 diabetic patients with diabetic foot lesions were selected by systematic random sampling method. An informed written consent was obtained from each of the study participant according to the declaration of Helsinki.  Data was collected by a structured and pretested questionnaire via face-to-face interview and by direct observation of the patient. Ratio of Type II diabetes among study population was 91.3% whereas 23.3% patients were having family history of diabetes. Result of the study showed that 44.35% patients of study sample were having some knowledge about diabetes related complications whereas 45.44% patients were having a positive attitude towards control and prevention of diabetes related complications. Good foot care and footwear practices were being carried out by just 33.62% of patients included in the study. It was concluded from the present study that by providing education regarding control and management of diabetes and its complications, patients training about foot care practices, early detection and management of peripheral neuropathy and strict control of blood glucose could be very helpful in decreasing the diabetic complication including diabetic foot lesions.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Hospital Mortality and Adverse Events in High-risk Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for St Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Ashok Kumar, Muhammad Rahman Khalid, Rajesh Kumar, Kamran Ahmed Khan, Sanam Khowaja, Altaf Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35964

Objective: To determine frequency of in hospital mortality and adverse events in high-risk patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).

Study Design: Descriptive case series study

Setting: The Department of Adult Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi.

Duration: From 5thJanuary 2019 To 4thJuly 2019

Material and Methods: All the patients of acute myocardial infarction (MI), age between18 to 80 years, and undergoing Primary PCI of either gender were included. Study outcomes such as in-hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, no reflow phenomenon, and ventricular arrhythmia were recorded. Data was collected via study proforma and analysis was done by using SPSS version 26.

Results: There were 81.9% males and 18.1% females. 16.7% cases diabetic, 42.7% were hypertensive, 38% with family history, 24.7% with smoking and 74% with obesity. Mortality was 14.7%, cardiogenic shock was 12.0%, heart failure was 18.7%, no reflow phenomenon was 28% and ventricular arrhythmia was 16%. Significant association of mortality was found with age and obesity. Cardiogenic shock and ventricular arrhythmia were significant according to gender and heart failure findings were significantly linked to hypertension (p-<0.05).

Conclusion: Mortality rate was high among STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI. No reflow phenomenon was the most observed event among these patients.

Open Access Review Article

Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT)-Literature Review

Somya Tyagi, V. K. Chimurkar, Vaibhav Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35954

Kidneys as well as urinary tracts are the major excretory organs of the human body and removes waste products of protein metabolism.They also remove surplus water and salts from the blood.Kidneys as well as urinary tracts also important for survival as they are crucial for preserving the fluid-electrolyte balance of the body tissue fluids.The inaccuracies in the embryogenesis of the outflow tractsalong with thekidneys are vulnerable to the environmental endargements and disturb the development throughout gestation.Mutations in the patient with CAKUT are responsible for the chronic renal diseases in the 1st three decades of life.Fetus dose not survive in severe cases of CAKUT as a result of non formation of kidneys and outflow tract, but in less severe cases there are more chances to survive and may identified in adulthood.Though the critical cases of CAKUT are infrequent, marginal nephron number is considerablyfrequent disorder exerting its effect on renal functions with increasing age.

Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract have a wide range ofabnormalities inclusive offatalagenesis of both the kidneys andasymptomatic ectopic kidneys.Hence patient with the solitary kidney should follow-up regularly for better and close monitoring.

The clinical presentation of CAKUT along with its long term outcomes and epidemiology is covered in this review.With a comphrehensive knowledge of the roots of CAKUT and marginal nephron numbers, identification of preventive treatment and establishment of clinical guidelines for the patients can be begun.Comphrehension of relevant endangerments and changes in the epidemiological trends especially modified maternal factors and delivery services is vital for prompt detection and prediction of prognosis in the course of pregnancy due to subsequent morbidity and mortality as a result of the presence of CAKUT.

Open Access Review Article

Use of Natural Products and Their Derivative in Cancer Research for the Discovery of Safer Treatments

Abeer M. Aldbass

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35959

Cancer stands as the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease worldwide. Many new techniques and procedures have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, but many deficiencies and challenges are still being faced. Chemotherapy is normally used for cancer treatment all over the world but it has many undesired side effects like fatigue, hair loss, frequent infection, and anemia. Cancer cells lose some regulatory functions resulting in continued division, which makes cancer cells susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs. New biomedical tools for safer treatments for this disease are badly needed to improve cancer incidence in the human population. Systemic drug discovery launched a big collection of useful chemotherapeutic agents but toxicities like myotoxicity cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, etc. are problematic issues. Natural therapies, derived from plants can decrease such side effects. With the help of animal models, many natural products are being explored and used to treat cancer all over the world. Animal models of cancer can mimic the disease in terms of morphology, biochemistry, and genetics could be helpful to identify the mechanism by which this disease develops in humans. Natural compounds have gained much attention as many compounds have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. In this review, we compile some natural anticancer drugs which are in clinical trials.

Open Access Review Article

Computed Tomography Coronary Angiogram; updates Regarding Evidence, Clinical Applications, and Emerging Technologies: A Literature of Review

Mohammed Alfawaz, Dalal Alfawaz, Fawaz A. Alfawaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i25B35963

Assessing of the coronary artery disease (CAD) especially coronary stenosis by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has shown a classic shift in the last decades. Recent advancements in cardiac CT have improved the quality of image and decreased exposure of patients to radiation. CCTA is a noninvasive technique for visualizing the anatomy of CAD. CCTA, in combination with newer techniques like plaque characterization, physiologic and functional evaluation, leads to accurate diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of any low to intermediate subjects for prevention.

Evidence strongly recommends the use of CCTA all over the stages of CAD, early from detecting of minute subclinical diseases up to the estimation of acute chest pain. Furthermore, CCTA can be used to noninvasively quantify plaque burden and identify high-risk plaque, which can help with diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. This is especially important in the evaluation of CAD in immune-driven conditions with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

Furthermore, key findings from large cohort trials have contributed to a better understanding of cardiovascular disease risk as a function of overall coronary plaque burden and the morphological appearance of individual plaques. With the introduction of CT-derived fractional flow reserve, an anatomical and functional test will be established within a single modality. Recent research has been published that looks at the short-term impact of CT-derived fractional flow reserve on downstream care and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, machine learning is a concept that is increasingly being applied to diagnostic medicine. Emerging CCTA applications based on hemodynamic indices and plaque characterization may provide personalized risk assessment, influence disease detection, and guide therapy further.

This review provides an update on the evidence, clinical applications, and emerging technologies related to CCTA. We also discuss how CCTA could be used to characterize coronary atherosclerosis, stratify asymptomatic subjects' prognosis, and guide medical therapy.