Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Acute Stent Thrombosis after Primary PCI in STEMI Patients

Sanaullah Shaikh, Zuhaib Uddin, Zeeshan Shaikh, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Javed Khurshed Shaikh, Ghulam Jaffar Shah, Syed Taimour Hussain, Ayesha Samad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35935

Background: In-hospital mortality data of patients who have been experiencing ST (stent thrombosis) shows 7.9% statistics for acute stent thrombosis (AST) within 24 hours of PCI, Sub-Acute Stent Thrombosis (SAST) occurs during 30 days of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Late Stent Thrombosis (LST) found 3.8% within the first year after PCI, and Very Late Stent Thrombosis found 3.6% in 1 year after PCI. From our study, we found out the frequency of Acute Stent Thrombosis (AST) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) Patients after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PPCI).

Methods: This descriptive-analytic case series was conducted in 06 months data collection time in the NICVD Karachi Pakistan. All the study sample were computed and analyzed by using SPSS (20.0 Version). Mean ± standard deviation was calculated for age, duration of surgery, weight, height, and BMI. Chi-square test by using P ≤ 0.05 as significant on 95% Confidence Interval were used for other variables.

Results: Out of 142 patients of 55.56 years of mean age was evaluated with standard deviation ±12.24 and BMI mean was 27.56±6.28. The mean ± SD duration of surgery was 33.48±9.26.

Conclusion: It is to be concluded that the frequency of AST after primary PCI was found to be significant. Patients presenting with STEMI were at high risk of AST whether they were hemodynamically unstable or they had ACS stenting of multivessel coronary diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Patterns of Anaemia in Geriatric Patients and Its Etiology: A Study of 500 Cases

Neha Agarwal, Col. Harsh Kumar, Merin Jose, Barnali Paul, Ume Sumayya M. Patil, M. B. Iqbal, Charusheela R. Gore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35938

Introduction: Anaemia in the elderly is a global health problem, since it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization’s criteria consider anaemia when level of haemoglobin is less than 13g/dl in male and 12g/dl in female. Anaemia is easier to miss among the elderly because symptoms such as fatigue, generalized weakness, or mental confusion can be linked to the ageing process. However, anaemia should never be considered as a natural part of growing older.

Aim: To investigate the haematological pattern of anaemia and its underlying etiology in elderly Indian patients.

Materials and Methods: A prospective study undertaken over a span of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital in Western Maharashtra. The study included 500 geriatric (>65years) anaemic patients who underwent a complete haemogram and the results were correlated with peripheral blood smear findings. Other diagnostic tests were done as indicated.

Results: The spectrum encompassed all patterns of anaemia with the most common being normocytic normochromic pattern (57.26%). Overall, there was slight male preponderance (53%) with 65-74 years (69%) being the most common age group afflicted. Maximum number of elderly people had moderate anaemia(56%) in this study; and chronic disease (27.2%) was the most common etiological cause of anaemia followed by iron deficiency (23.4%). Upper gastrointestinal lesions (59%) were the most common causes of iron deficiency anaemia in the present study followed by nutritional deficiency (31.6%).

Conclusion: Correlation of haemogram and peripheral blood smears is a crucial first step to identify the haematological pattern of anaemia and advise subsequent investigations for assessing and diagnosing it’s etiology. Thus, it plays a role in deciding the management protocol and contributes towards a better quality of life for geriatric anemic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Whole Fruit Extracts of Luffa Acutangula. Var. Amara and Rhizome Extracts of Rheum Emodi in CCl4 - Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity

Muna Abid, Mohammed Ibrahim, Zakia Abid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35939

To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of whole fruit extracts of Luffa acutangula.var. amara and rhizome extracts of Rheum emodi in CCl4 treated rats. The dried powders of L. amara and R. emodi were extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water. The hepatoprotective capacity of the extract of the whole fruits of L. amara and the rhizomes of R. emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCl4- treated male rats. The present study explored the possibilities of using low doses of both plant extracts (150mg/kg, and 300mg/kg bw, po route) to treat CCL4 intoxicated albino rats in both acute and chronic models of hepatic damage, evident by increased serum levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, cholesterol and triglycerides, all being implicated in considerable hepatic damage.

Histopathological examination in CCl4 treated rats revealed collapse of liver parenchyma with early fibrosis and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration in patchy areas around central vein (Pic.group-2) when compared to the control group. Histopathological and physical examinations also indicated their effectiveness with their dose tolerability and liver protection.

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the whole fruits of L. amara and rhizomes of R. emodi were indicative of more hepatoprotective properties when compared to the petroleum ether extracts of both plants against CCl4 induced liver damage as confirmed from hepatic serum marker enzyme activities and histopathological studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accuracy of GeneXpert in Diagnosis of Smear Negative Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

Muhammad Kashif Munir, Sana Rehman, Ayesha Aftab, Naeem Asghar, Akhtar Ali, Netasha Nazar, Muhammad Amer Nazir, Asif Hanif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35947

Objective: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert in smear negative as compared to smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

Methods: This comparative cross sectional study was undertaken at Health Research Institute (National Institute of Health) TB Research Centre, Pulmonology King Edward Medical University Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 101 patients in each smear negative and positive groups were included. After taking the informed consent a predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the data.

Results: A total of 202 patients consisting of 94 (46.5%) male and 108 (53.5%) females with mean age of patients as 39.83±18.14 years were included in this study. Highest proportion of 45% patients remained to be in age range of 18-35 years. Culture presented the highest accuracy of 96.1% with sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.9%, 100%, and 100% respectively while GeneXpert remained to be 94.6%, 94.9%, 80%, and 99.5% respectively in this study.

Conclusion: Accuracy of GeneXpert is excellent in diagnosis of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and very well in diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB patients and a great addition in early and definite diagnosis of TB and keeps the ability to confirm around 75% smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

Open Access Review Article

Topical Lidocaine Medicated Plaster 5% and Pregabalin for the Treatment of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Hassan A. Moria

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35937

Background and objectives: Post-herpetic neuralgia is common severe pain that leads to poor quality of life. Various topical and systemic drugs were in use including topical lidocaine medicated plaster 5% (05% LMP. This is the first meta-analysis to compare 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and pregabalin. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of 5% LMP and pregabalin in PHN and compare these medications regarding the same.

Methods: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library for publications assessing 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and pregabalin drugs on post-herpetic neuralgia. We included articles published in English from inception up to February 2022. All types of studies were included except case reports, case series, studies on animals, and experimental studies. The terms used were: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster, pregabalin, post-herpetic neuralgia, pain relief, pain reduction, and pain scores. We identified 579 articles and the number stood at 435 after duplication removal, of them, 45 full texts were screened. Eight cohorts from seven studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The most recent RevMan system was used for data analysis.

Results: The pain score was significantly lower among patients receiving topical lidocaine compared to placebo or pre and post-intervention (odd ratio, -1.91, 95% CI, -3.77-0.04). Lidocaine Medicated Plaster 5% and pregabalin were effective for pain relief in PHN. However, 5% LMP was more effective (odd ratio, 2.11, 95% CI, 1.41-3.17).

Interpretation and Conclusion: Five % lidocaine medicated plaster was effective for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia. In addition, the drug was more beneficial than placebo and pregabalin. Further randomized controlled studies assessing the use of LMP 5% on acute herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia are recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Depression and Anxiety: A Review

Husain Y. H. Alzaidi, Abdullah A. M. Aladwani, Abdullah N. M. H. M. J. Aldhuainah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24B35940

Obesity is a complex disease that effect large amount of population, According to WHO overweight and obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that put the patient heath at risk to develop multiple disease [1], The treatment options are lifestyle changes, diet control, medication, non surgical management and surgical management, some of those treatment are linked to clinical depression.

Aim: To look at the prevalence of depression post bariatric surgery.

Methodology: We looked at published researches on internet about the prevalence of depression post bariatric surgery.

Results: There is a significant association between bariatric surgery and prevalence of depression

Conclusion: A full clinical and psychological assessment should be done prior to bariatric surgery to avoid depression.