Open Access Minireview Article

The Effect of Molecular Markers in Advanced Thyroid Cancers

Hasan Zafer Acar, Arkın Akalın

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35932

Molecular markers play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancers, as in many types of cancer.

Our aim in this study is to investigate the effect of molecular markers in the follow-up and treatment of advanced thyroid cancers.

For this purpose, the results obtained in recent articles investigating molecular markers in the follow-up and treatment of advanced thyroid cancers were evaluated and new findings were presented. The databases from which the references are obtained are Google Scholar, Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science.

According to the results of our study, molecular markers have very important effects in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancers. It can already be said that future studies on this subject will further increase the treatment possibilities and prolong survival in advanced thyroid cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Caffeinated Products Consumption among General Population

Vinoth Rajendran, V.P. Dharani Shrinivasan, Kameswaran Ramalingam, Senthil Madasamy, Sambathkumar Ramanathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35929

Caffeinated product consumption is the world most widely consumed psychoactive drug. The consumption of caffeinated product is highly prevalent among Asian countries. This study aimed to assess knowledge attitude and practice towards caffeinated product consumption. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted through online Questionnaire through the social media platform. We assessed demographic characteristics and intake of caffeine from different products like tea, coffee, energy drinks and soft drinks. Both genders were included in the study and above 18 years old, repeated and incomplete data submission were excluded from the study. A total of 273 participants replied to the survey. Out of 273 participants; 148(54.22%) were female, 125(45.78%) were male, among them 241(88.30%) participants were under the age group of 18-28 years. Multiple choice procedure was carried out to assess the different products, most preferred products are 156(59.77%) consuming coffee, 146(55.93%) consuming tea, 106(40.99%) consuming chocolate, 47(18.00%) consuming carbonated drink, 26(9.96%) consuming energy drinks and 7(2.68%) consuming caffeine from other products. The major reason for intake of caffeinated products for refreshment was 163(62.45%) and most of the participants intake while studying 115(44.06%). The Most common symptom occurred due to excessive consumption of caffeine is vomiting 30(11.49%), the study participants faced difficulties faced missing a regular intake of caffeine is headache 71(27.20%). Out of 273 participants,the majority of the participants has lack knowledge and a positive attitude towards caffeine consumption. The Majority of the study participants believe the merits of caffeinated product consumption outweigh its demerits. It was found that side effect due to the usage of caffeinated products raising exceedingly it is essential to educate the consumption product in a recommended limit in their daily life style. This study result will give an idea for upcoming research on the consumption of caffeinated products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Estrogenic Activity and Anti-Osteoporotic Activity of Extracted Quercetin from Bambusa arundinacea Leaves on Ovariectomized Rats

Akankasha Awasthi, Divya Juyal, Mamta F. Singh, Saurabh Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35930

Phytoestrogens has now become a emerging era of interest for the researchers. The mimicking effects of phytoestrogens had lead to its wide use in reproductive system. In this study it was aimed to study the estrogenic activity and anti-osteoporotic activity of isolated quercetin female Wistar rats. The estrogenic effect was analyzed by uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. The administration of isolated quercetin in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight when compared with ovariectomized control rats. The treated rats, showing only Cornified epithelial cells was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. Thirty six female albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=6). After 60 days of Ovariectomy, animals were treated with of isolated quercetin for the next 45 days. Finally femur bone length, weight, bone ash calcium level, and bone mineral density (BMD) were estimated. The levels of serum alkaline phosphates (ALP), calcium, and phosphorous, and bone histopathology were also evaluated. OVX-induced increased serum ALP, calcium, and phosphorous levels were impaired in of isolated quercetin treated rats. The isolated quercetin which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. It also exhibited a significant anti-osteoporotic effect in the experimental model of OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats, indicating advantageous effect in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thus it concludes the Anti Estrogenic activity and Anti-Osteoporotic activity of extracted Quercetin from Bambusa arundinacea leaves on ovariectomized rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Therapy: An Important Risk for Acquired Aplastic Anemia

Muhammad Asif Syed, Nasreen Qazi, Shah Nawaz Jamali, Ashique Ali Arain, Sadat Memon, Ganesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35933

Background: Aplastic anemia although a rare hematological disorder but it is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. It is a matter of greater public health concern for the Asian population with prevalence 3 times greater than other part of the globe. Exposures of specific drugs, chemicals and others have been connected with an AA etiology. We aimed to examine the association of antimicrobial drugs exposures with AA.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study in Karachi, Pakistan, selecting the patients with two blood lineages depressed on bone marrow biopsy as the cases while patients without any hematological disorder as controls. For each case four age-sex matched control were enrolled. Information associated to socio-demographics and exposure to antibiotics was collected on a questionnaire during personal interview.

Results: We identified 191 cases with an age range of 1-66 years and 696 controls. Predominant participants were male (67%), female being 33%. Antimicrobial drugs were used by 49.74% of aplastic anemia cases whereas the use was reported in 29.31% controls. Beta-lactam antibiotics, chloramphenicol, macrolides, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and others were the drug categories evaluated.

Conclusion: Antimicrobials were reported to be used more frequently in aplastic anemia cases as compared to their normal controls

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Chlordiazepoxide in Novel Excipient Containing Formulations

Dada Kodalkar, Ajit Kulkarni, Birendra Shrivastav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35934

An effort has been made to establish a simple and exact reverse-phase HPLC technique for the analysis of Chlordiazepoxide in bulk medication and formulations. A Phenomenex Luna C18 stationary phase (250 4.6 mm, 5) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous buffer (pH 6.8) and acetonitrile in an isocratic mode were employed in this method's present development. Following the ICH recommendations, many aspects such as linearity range, system applicability and accuracy and precision were examined. The LOD and LOQ were also evaluated. Robustness and solution stability were also examined. Chlordiazepoxide concentrations in a new formulation comprising an excipient were successfully measured using the newly designed and validated technique. When using the approach, the recovery rate was determined to be between 99.00 percent and 101.00 percent. Detection and quantification of Chlordiazepoxide in pharmaceutical formulations were shown to be possible using this method (99.7 percent). Methods for rapid screening of Chlordiazepoxide in bulk pharmaceuticals and formulations were developed using an RP-HPLC technology that is both linear and robust.

Open Access Review Article

Nanomedicine in Treatment of Typhoid Fever: A Review

Swati Pund, Nitin Kharat, Shaikh Sohel Shaikh Khalil, Shoebuddin Zaheeroddin Shaikh, Chetan Pulate, Harshal Tare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i24A35931

For effective management of typhoid, diagnosis of the disease must be done with speed and accuracy. Laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever requires isolation and identification of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. In many areas where the disease is endemic, laboratory capability is limited. Recent advances in molecular immunology have led to the identification of sensitive and specific markers. Currently, alternative methods for biological molecular analysis are enzyme immunoassay, surface plasmon resonance and electrochemical immunoassay. With the development of nanotechnology, various nanoparticles and nano-quantum dots have been used as labels to enhance the sensitivity of the electrochemical immunoassay technique.