Open Access Short Communication

Pharmacist Role in Telehealth Practice in Pakistan During 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pandemic: The Neglected Link for Patient Safety

Atta Ur Rehman, Ume Hani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35856

Telehealth services have been working for decades to offer health advice at the point of treatment care. The usage of this innovative modern communication technology for the general public is still in its infancy in developing countries including Pakistan. The communities are advised to practice social distancing for safe survival during the corona pandemic. The role of a pharmacist is well recognized Worldwide in the practicing telemedicine models of drug information centers and poison control centers. Telemedicine centers were established by different hospitals and medical universities to provide telephonic consultation regarding any ailment during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus pandemic in Pakistan. The pharmacist’s potential and professional expertise are neglected and unexplored as drug information experts in hospitals and community pharmacies, antidote specialists in poison control centers, patient counselor for treatment compliance in Pakistan. The telemedicine practice in the institutions ensures the inclusion of trained pharmacists for better patient care. Telepharmacy initiation at the community level by the government will also reduce the burden on the hospital level.

Open Access Policy Article

The Pharmaceutical Policy Reforms in Greece during the Economic Crisis, 2010-2015

J. Fanourgiakis

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35859

In the decade 2000-2009 Greece had the higher rate of public pharmaceutical expenditures as a percentage out of the total public health expenditure and the bigger per capita consumption of public pharmaceutical expenditure among the EU countries. At the end of this decade, Greek governments confronted with this “paradox” and tried to reduce it unsuccessfully. In order to finance its debt, Greece took a financial package of 110 billion € from Troika of the European Commission (EC), European Central Bank (ECB), and International Monetary Fund (IMF) under strict conditions and adopted austere policies designed by Troika all over the public finance sector in order to reduce its debts. Our aim is to provide an overview of new legislation starting from the first memorandum until the first quarter of 2014 and to record the impact of pharmaceutical reforms in all over the pharmaceutical chain. The legislation of this period had the reduction in public pharmaceutical expenditures as a primary endpoint. The new laws focus on new drug pricing policies, profit control regulations, and demand regulations. The economic targets in order to decrease public pharmaceutical expenditures were achieved but not without cost, all the parts in the pharmaceutical chain were affected, especially the last link the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning among Nursing Students at Private Nursing Institutes in Karachi, Pakistan

Bella Richard, Shireen Arif, Aftab Ghouri, Abdul Rehman Khan, Sohail Sajid, Faiza Jokhio

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 5-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35857

Background: Nursing is a profession where theory and skills runs vice-versa but advancement and new technology increasing challenges for professionals, to update their-selves for which they required to use self-directed learning (SDL). The SDL has become a key concept in nursing education and is considered as an essential as learning of skill for nursing students and nurses to keep them motivated for lifelong learning,

Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the readiness level of nursing students regarding self-directed learning (SDL) currently studying in the BSN program in private nursing institutes.

Study Design:

Method:  This study used the descriptive cross-sectional study design.

Place and Duration of the Study: Study performed in three institutes of nursing, in Karachi, Pakistan, in duration between May to October 2019.

Methodology: 384 BS Nursing students of I- IV year were selected by stratified random sampling technique, 203 were females and 181 males participated. Mostly (200) aged between 26-30. The data was collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire focused on self-directed learning.

Result: Out of 384, 200 (52%) participants were between 26-30 years of age, 203 (52.8%) were females. The participants were belong from three different institutes and enrolled in BSN with the year I, II, III, IV. The 324 (84.3%) participants showed a high level of SDL, which indicates effective SDL abilities in students. All the sub-categories like awareness, evaluation, interpersonal skills, learning strategies, and learning activities were applied ANOVA; major difference observed in all sub-categories and participants’ age and total score with age group with P-value = .05.

Conclusion: There is no difference in male and female learning abilities. SDL may enhance confidence and empowerment among students. SDL can be equally beneficial in education and clinical area. To increase SDL, various considerations are required like teacher’s role, involvement in curriculum, and other professional or academic bodies that can bring learner-oriented positive teaching-learning environment; hence effective learning strategies can enhance the use of SDL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vulnerability-Related Risk Factors in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries during Covid-19 Pandemic

Khalil Komlakh, Masoud Hatefi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35858

Background: Spinal cord injury is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence which causes various disorders in normal human life.

Objectives: This study endeavored to determine the risk factors related to the vulnerability in patients with SCIs During Covid-19 Pandemic in Ilam.

Methods: This study was conducted by utilization of a variety of descriptive cross-sectional studies in 2021. Questionnaires were used to collect information Tilburg vulnerability survey, Resilience survey and wax social support survey. For gaining samples with suitable disperse in the study properties and purposes, a list of patients was chosen and all of them were contacted to be informed about participating in the study. Completed surveys analyzed by SPSS16.

Results: Result showed, average score and standard deviation of vulnerability score in patients with SCI. Accordingly M(SD) measured to be 6.40(1.38) in physical dimension of vulnerability, 1.56(0.89) in mental dimension of vulnerability and 0.81(0.76) in social dimension of vulnerability. result of study, M(SD) was calculated to be 20.20(3.59) in family dimension, 18.76(3.83) in friends’ dimension and 21.70(3.69) in other people dimension.

Conclusions: Suggested to consider demographic variables affecting the health-related components in order to improve the condition of patients with SCI during the outbreak of Covid-19 disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Injuries in Genito-Anal Area in Cases of Sexual Assault: A Cross Sectional Study

Nadia Aslam, Abrar Ul Hasnain Memon, Haya Afzal Memon, Pardeep Kumar, Sultan Rajper, Asiya Parveen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35861

Aim: To determine the pattern of injuries in the genito-anal area in cases of sexual assault

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration: This study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health sciences Jamshoro, Pakistan from June 2020 to July 2021

Methodology: A total of 96 victims of assault, who survived rape, were incorporated. The victims were from all groups of ages. All the patients considered in this study were both male and female. All of them had reported the case to the police and community.

Results: There were 84.5% cases of penile-anal penetration, 76% of penile-oral penetrate and 48% of assault victims presented with ano-genital bleeding. Most of the cases of sexual assault considered in this study were not completely investigated previously.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the most common pattern of injury after sexual assault was penile-anal penetration. Penile-oral penetration was the second most common injury. Nothing can undo whatever a sexual assault victim has to go through but catching and punishing the perpetrator is a necessary step. Genital injuries are not proof of a sexual assault. A sexual assault does not necessarily leave the genital area injured.

Open Access Review Article

Updates in Diagnosis and Management of Ectopic Pregnancy

Hesham Mohamed Hamad Morcy, Luluah Maan Ramadan Abdullah, Maryam Mohammed M. Alenezi, Almutairi, Fai Sultan F., Sama Abdulfattah M. Almadani, R. Alruwaili, Raghad Khalid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i22B35860

Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs when the conceptus becomes embedded and matures beyond the endometrial cavity, resulting in the foetus' mortality.

Ectopic pregnancy can become a lifethreatening issue if it is not diagnosed and treated promptly. The most common symptoms of an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are first-haemorrhage and abdominal pain.

Although these symptoms can also occur in intrauterine pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, when a pregnant woman shows them, clinicians should suspect ectopic pregnancy. Methotrexate, a folic acid antagonist, has been extensively studied in medicine. Methotrexate inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, causing trophoblastic cells to divide rapidly and reducing tetrahydrofolate levels (a cofactor for deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid formation).